There are numerous examples of fascinating knowledge of ancient scientists in various fields that continue to mesmerize present day researchers

There are numerous examples of fascinating knowledge of ancient scientists in various fields that continue to mesmerize present day researchers. One of the most bewildering puzzles that scientists face nowadays deals with construction of Egyptian pyramids. Each block of the famous Egyptian pyramid of Cheops weighs 15-100 tons. The ceiling of the king's bedroom is made of a monolithic layer of red granite, which weighs 70 tons. Each one of those granite blocks is matched with extreme accuracy. Egyptian level of precision of dealing with such heavyweight stones exceeded that of modern day construction workers who work with blocks 300 times lighter by 10 times.

French historians claim that transportation of a tomb stone from a sanctuary in Luxor to Paris lasted for about two months. The transportation began in 1835. Numerous people participated in the process and a chief engineer had tons of issues to deal with. This stone however was way lighter than those massive blocks which make up the pyramid.

Just as this tomb stone appears tiny in comparison with monoliths comprising the pyramids, so do these monoliths appear diminutive when compared to the stone blocks in Machu Picchu and Saksahu-Amane in Peru. Each one of those stone giants is six meters long and three meters wide. Each one of them is ideally placed next to each other. The level of precision is so stunning that according to American scientist Siegfried Hunter one can hardly believe it was created by humans 500 years ago.

Peruvian stone blocks do not appear huge if compared to the gigantic slabs used in construction of a temple in Baalbek, in the territory of modern Lebanon. Some of the monoliths in its foundation weigh up to 750 tons.

According to various historical and archaeological accounts, people who constructed those buildings were completely unaware of concrete and wheelbarrows. Therefore, it remains a mystery as to how those people managed to transport those massive stone blocks from quarries and then neatly placed them next to each other. Nobody can provide a logical explanation of such phenomenon.

Sometime ago, Soviet scientist M.M. Agrest PhD. made an assumption in the pages of “Literary Newspaper” concerning the process of construction of the famous Baalbek temple. He claimed that the sanctuary had been constructed by aliens. The temples spacious interior in turn served as their launching site. According to the scientist, a series of fragments from the Bible as well as excerpts from a manuscript discovered in 1947 on the Western shore of the Red sea provide proof of his hypothesis. In addition, Agrest's theory correlates with another revolutionary discovery made by Soviet scientist A. P. Kazantsev in Peru. The latter discovered cave paintings vividly depicting mysterious engines or space ships. There is also a possibility that those gigantic constructions in Egypt and Lebanon and other places worldwide are somehow connected.

There also exist other gigantic constructions in various parts of the world. First of all, it is Stonehenge in England. It is nearly 4000 year old. According to the recent analysis, this megalithic monument, comprised of several hundreds of stone blocks of various sizes represents a unique astrological observatory. The stone blocks weigh almost 30 tons. Some of them had to be transported from a distance of 400 kilometers. Afterwards, each block had to be neatly trimmed and erected in a precise place. Scientists are perfectly aware of those people who used to inhabit the area in the past. They are also aware of the fact that neither one of those individuals was capable enough to construct something of this complexity. Besides, the level of their overall development was not advanced. They did not need an observatory. So who did build it then? What for? Using what kind of technology?


Here is another mystery that continues to puzzle people. In 1772 Dutch seafarer Jacob Roggewen discovered a small island at the Eastern part of the Pacific Ocean, which he had later named Easter island. In the distant past, the overall population of the island could not have exceeded 2-3,000 people. Easter Island consists mainly of badlands and based on several examinations, it appears as though not a single tree has ever grown in the region. Therefore, it remains unclear how could islanders transport massive stone blocs for their famous monuments known as “moai”. They surely could not have used any wooden roller bearings for “moai” transportation. So how were they transported?

Upon the first arrival of missioners to the island, they found numerous tablets with hieroglyphs lying next to some statues. It is said, that some of the tablets have been destroyed, while some have been sent to Vatican, where they can still be found today. Ethnologists were able to decipher some of the tablets. The legend tells of a white race which descended from the sky. However, it is still unclear whether these legends have anything in common with the statues.

There is also a significant amount of publications dedicated to Nazca paintings located in the south-western part of Peru and visible only from above. Famous scientist Masson is certain that one must have been given precise directions from above in order to do those paintings.

Indian ancient sacred books “Ramayana” and “Mahabharata”, for instance, talk about extraterrestrial creatures “sons of the Moon and the Sun” arriving to the Earth. These books also mention battles which were fought by means of, what appears to be, atomic power. Both texts are more than 2000 years old. However, each one of them lists events that had taken place 20-30 years ago. Both “Ramayana” and “Mahabharata” describe oval-shaped flying objects which used mercury as fuel.

Interestingly, the idea of mercury fueled flying machines has been discussed at an International Congress in
Paris in 1959.

The books also provide detailed accounts of bomb explosions which “destroyed entire cities and created sparks of light equivalent to 100,000 suns.”

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Here is another puzzle. In late 50s of past century, Soviet, American and Indian scientists arrived to the conclusion that about 10,000 years ago ancestors of today’s Eskimos had inhabited the territory of modern-day mid
Asia, Mongolia and Ceylon. They did not migrate to Greenland until much later. It also appears that their migration was rather sudden. Why? What caused those people to abandon their settlements and pursue the “end of the world?” Not a single scientist is capable of providing a logical explanation to such mystery so far. Eskimo folklore is rich with legends. Some of those legends talk about iron birds which transported their ancestors to the North.

These puzzles represent just a small part of existing mysteries. Scientists continue unveiling the greatest mysteries




The Ancient Secrets of Levitation 

Great stone structures and megaliths around the world stand as mysteries to how they were constructed. Is it possible their builders possessed the powers of defying gravity?



The Science "They" Don't Want You To Know About


Timeless questions with simple and obvious answers. Don't waste another dollar on tabloids or books claiming to know the "truth" about these mysteries. This page will help you throw out all of those antiquated ideas and theories. You'd be surprised how fun it can be to make up your own answers!

The pyramids

Contrary to popular belief, the pyramids were not built by ancient astronauts. Instead, the area was flooded and the stones were floated into place on rafts.

Ancient runways in
South America
Don't give E.T. credit for these mysterious runways, they were built by the local Indian civilizations. Lacking the appropriate technologies to build airplanes, they wisely utilized available time and manpower building airports for their future planes. If you build it, they will come.

Crop circles

Everybody's got this one wrong and what an intergalactic disgrace! Crop circles are simply teenage aliens' form of vandalism. "Hey, Zornack, Dad's gonna let me have the saucer Saturday night. Wanna get drunk and do some circles down on Earth?"

Great Wall of China
An engineering marvel? No, just a sitcom out of control. Starved for good comedy, a Chinese sitcom with sagging ratings "borrowed" the tired American sitcom theme of "you stay on your side of the house and I'll stay on mine". The show was a massive hit and rather than straying from a successful storyline, they just kept adding to it.

Contrary to popular belief, aliens only eat our brains.

Aliens write the tabloids.


ancient astronauts


The term 'ancient astronauts' designates the speculative notion that aliens are responsible for the most ancient civilizations on earth. The most notorious proponent of this idea is Erich von Däniken, author of several popular books on the subject. His Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past, for example, is a sweeping attack on the memories and abilities of ancient peoples. Von Däniken claims that the myths, arts, social organizations, etc., of ancient cultures were introduced by astronauts from another world. He questions not just the capacity for memory, but the capacity for culture and civilization itself, in ancient peoples. Prehistoric humans did not develop their own arts and technologies, but rather were taught art and science by visitors from outer space.


Where is the proof for von Däniken's claims? Some of it was fraudulent. For example, he produced photographs of pottery that  he claimed had been found in an archaeological dig. The pottery depicts flying saucers and was said to have been dated from Biblical times. However, investigators from Nova (the fine public-television science program) found the potter who had made the allegedly ancient pots. They confronted von Däniken with evidence of his fraud. His reply was that his deception was justified because some people would only believe if they saw proof ("The Case of the Ancient Astronauts," first aired 3/8/78, done in conjunction with BBC's Horizon and Peter Spry-Leverton)!


However, most of von Däniken's evidence is in the form of specious and fallacious arguments. His data consists mainly of archaeological sites and ancient myths. He begins with the ancient astronaut assumption and then forces all data to fit the idea. For example, in Nazca, Peru, he explains giant animal drawings in the desert as an ancient alien airport. The likelihood that these drawings related to the natives' religion or science is not considered. He also frequently reverts to false dilemma reasoning of the following type: "Either this data is to be explained by assuming these primitive idiots did this themselves or we must accept the more plausible notion that they got help from extremely advanced peoples who must have come from other planets where such technologies as anti-gravity devices had been invented." His devotion to this theory has not dwindled, despite contrary evidence, as is evidenced by still another book on the subject, Arrival of the Gods : Revealing the Alien Landing Sites at Nazca.


There have been many critics of von Däniken's notions, but Ronald Story stands out as the most thorough. Most critics of von Däniken's theory point out that prehistoric peoples were not the helpless, incompetent, forgetful savages he makes them out to be. (They must have at least been intelligent enough to understand the language and teachings of their celestial instructors--no small feat!) It is true that we still do not know how the ancients accomplished some of their more astounding physical and technological feats. We still wonder how the ancient Egyptians raised giant obelisks in the desert and how stone age men and women moved huge cut stones and placed them in position in dolmens and passage graves. We are amazed by the giant carved heads on Easter Island and wonder why they were done, who did them, and why they abandoned the place. We may someday have the answers to our questions, but they are most likely to come from scientific investigation not pseudoscientific speculation. For example, observing contemporary stone age peoples in Papua New Guinea, where huge stones are still found on top of tombs, has taught us how the ancients may have accomplished the same thing with little more than ropes of organic material, wooden levers and shovels, a little ingenuity and a good deal of human strength. Nova's "Secrets of Lost Empires" made no appeal to alien teachers in the attempt to figure out how the ancient Egyptians might have raised a giant obelisk, how the medieval warriors built their catapults and how & why the sculptors of Easter Island did what they did.


We have no reason to believe our ancient ancestors' memories were so much worse than our own that they could not remember these alien visitations well enough to preserve an accurate account of them. There is little evidence to support the notion that ancient myths and religious stories are the distorted and imperfect recollection of ancient astronauts recorded by ancient priests. The evidence to the contrary--that prehistoric or 'primitive' peoples were (and are) quite intelligent and resourceful--is overwhelming.

Of course, it is possible that visitors from outer space did land on earth a few thousand years ago and communicate with our ancestors. But it seems more likely that prehistoric peoples themselves were responsible for their own art, technology and culture. Why concoct such an explanation as von Däniken's?  To do so may increase the mystery and romance of one's theory, but it also makes it less reasonable, especially when one's theory seems inconsistent with what we already know about the world. And why restrict one's examples to Egypt, Mexico, and other non-European countries? What about the builders of Newgrange or Stonehenge? The ancient astronaut hypothesis is unnecessary. Occam's razor should be applied and the hypothesis rejected.

The ancient civilizations of the Egyptians, Babylonians, Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas shared several intriguing characteristics:


1. They were extremely advanced scientifically and technologically.

2. Animal and human sacrifices were performed at an alarming rate, preceding their demise.

3. They believed they had acquired metaphysical knowledge from the "gods", whom they perceived as coming from the stars and also the subterranean level of the earth.

4. These cultures disintegrated or became abruptly extinct while at the pinnacle of their existence.


Many of these revered and feared entities were described as looking like winged-reptilians or dragons. Similarly, Satan and his minions were depicted in an identical manner, as seen in artwork throughout the centuries.

In Genesis 3 we read about the 'Nachash'; Hebrew word for 'Serpent'. The original Nachash was not actually a snake as most people believe, but an extremely intelligent, cunning creature, possessed with the ability to speak and reason. Another significant parallel from the Holy Bible is shown in Jeremiah 8:17, "Behold, I will send serpents, cockatrices among you, which will bite you, saith the Lord." The definition of a cockatrice is a reptilian bird-like creature or winged-serpent. This could very well represent the Phoenix, described in Egyptian mythology.


A theory proposed by Bible scholar I.D.E. Thomas asserts that the race of the "Nephilim" (meaning Giants and/or fallen ones), mentioned in Genesis 6:4 and Numbers 13:33, closely resemble the alien race of the blond Pleiadian Nordics, reported to be eight to nine feet tall. The Nazis attempted to revive this mystical Aryan race in the 1930's and 1940's. Mr. Thomas believes that a hybrid offspring culminated from relations between the Nephilim and the "daughters of man" resulting in increased wickedness upon the earth; and thus evoking God's wrath in the form of the "Great Flood".


Interviews taken of ex-Wiccans and Satanists (now Christians) indicate a high level of personal contact with various alien types, especially during coven meetings and holiday rituals. Those coming from the highest echelon of Satanism known as the Illuminati, believe the original people who inhabited the earth descended from Mars via the Moon. They believe the first established civilization was Atlantis. Renowned for their superior intellect, the Atlanteans suffered the same fate as a few of the proceeding cultures already mentioned. The remnant people from Atlantis became the American Indians, according to their interpretation of history.


Dr. Richard Boylan has written extensively about E.T. encounters, and has found five common features of people predominately involved in UFO/alien sightings and abductions:


1 Individuals possessing a high degree of psychic ability.

2. Similar phenomenon occuring with other family members (multi or trans-generational).

3. Native Americans and/or indigenous peoples.

4. Children who have been subjected to severe abuse or trauma.

5. Individuals and/or family members affiliated to government and/or military intelligence agencies or departments.


In conjunction, a strong relationship exists between occultic ritual sites, top secret military installations, and UFO/alien sightings and abductions. There also appears to be a magnetic spiritual vortex (or vacuum) which has drawn an many "New Agers" into these areas (Taos, NM; Sedona,AZ; Boulder, CO, etc.). One prime example is the area near Dulce, NM, where the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has a highly-secured underground complex on the Jicarella Indian Reservation — a region known for Native American shamanism. The facility is said to be used for genetic engineering, including cloning. Several witnesses who were employed there reported seeing different breeds of aliens.


Congruently, the Mojave Desert in California has it's share of military bases involved in "black projects", ranging from research and development of "advanced" aircraft to MKULTRA mind control operations (Edwards AFB, Ft. Irwin, and China Lake Naval Weapons Center). Coincidentally, it was the area where Charles Manson and family resided in the late 1960's. It was also the general location described in the book, Outside the Circle of Time (1980) by Kenneth Grant. A portion of the book states, "John Whiteside Parsons who specialized in jet propulsion and L. Ron Hubbard, founder of Scientology and former Naval Intelligence Officer were involved in a special project during 1945 and 1946... This special project which was carried out in the California desert, was a part of magical ceremonies black witchcraft known as the 'Babylon Working', designed by Aleister Crowley, who died in 1947 year of the alleged Roswell UFO crash and the implementation of the National Security Act... The purpose of the series of ceremonies performed by Parsons and Hubbard was to unseal an interdimensional gateway, that had been sealed in antiquity thereby allowing other dimensional entities known as the 'Old Ones' access to our space/time continuum. The culmination of the ceremonies was reported to have been successful, having resulted in the establishment of 'extra-terrestrial contact'... Crowley left behind a drawing of his invisible mentors or as he called them, 'Secret Chiefs' spirit guides, entitled LAM. This entity has a very large head on a small body, a pointed chin, and a little slit of a mouth description compares favorably to the 'Greys'."


Another British occultist, Dr. John Dee, court astrologer for Queen Elizabeth I, would regularly summon alien-like entities.


Several abductees, psychics (through out-of-body experiences) and former employees of the Dulce facility reported seeing large vats, full of blood and body parts; essentially, a human stew . Their understanding is particular varieties of aliens, mostly "Greys" bathe in these vats to absorb nutrients through their skin. One of the secretions these aliens crave is adrenaline, which is generated in great quantity when the victim is tortured or traumatized at the moment of death. This glandular hormone is most potent in children.


Striking similarities are found in Egyptian Satanism, as graphically detailed in The Egyptian Book of the Dead. "Behold ye then god this great slaughter, mighty of terror, he washeth in your blood, he batheth in your gore." It was common practice for them to sacrifice infants and young children for the purpose of obtaining the life or energy force from the victim.


Additional observations by some who have witnessed aliens recall distinct insignias or emblems on their uniforms. To no surprise, alien symbology is identical to that of the Mystery Religions of ancient Babylon. For instance, the winged-sun disk is worn by the "Draconis" or Reptilian race and is prominently displayed throughout the sliding scale of occultism. The double-headed eagle or Phoenix is associated with the Lyrae-Greys; a trademark of the Scottish Rite branch of Freemasonry. A book describing the interaction between non-human beings from other planets and the "enlightened ones" (33rd degree Freemasons) is found in the book, The Hidden Life of Freemasonry. Mario Pazzaglini, Ph.D., published his meticulous research pertaining to alien symbols in a book titled, Symbolic Messages: An Introduction to a Study of "Alien" Writing. He effectively deciphered over 150 samples and concluded that a high percentage of the alien alphabets are similar to magical alphabets of Hermetic and Enochian origins. Mario also surmised that, "Further, messages from aliens seem in most people to act as a nucleus for a developing sense of purpose in life, an increased realization that of some kind of 'assignment' from beyond humankind, and a heightened spiritual sense. The specific contents of these ideas can be of any religious denomination, or orientation, and sometimes reveals or develops a totally new religion, usually with conglomerate pieces from known religions and other cosmic, planetary, or stellar schemes."  


Some skeptics have taken the position that the UFO/alien phenomenon can be best explained as a form of psychosis or hysteria as conceptualized within Jungian psychology. Others view it as an elaborate government hoax, designed to further confuse the American populace. Such an insight is coherently expounded upon in the book, Space Aliens from the Pentagon, by Bill Lyne, former Air Force Intelligence Officer. I believe all the above explanations can exist simultaneously and need not be exclusive from one another. What better way to manipulate one's perception of reality by throwing out several different scenarios, thereby making it difficult to ascertain a consistent pattern or trend that would hopefully lead to finding the elusive "truth". In adding to the perplexity, cattle mutilations have been theorized to be the nefarious work of space creatures for experimental purposes. Others feel it's a result of cultic rituals. Yet, another explanation is that it's a smoke-screen perpetrated by government/military psy-ops in order to escalate our already induced paranoia (Is that a black helicopter I hear?).


A few so-called experts in the field of UFOology are excited about the possibility that someday soon, these seemingly benevolent and misunderstood inter-galactic beings will openly reveal themselves to the Earth's human populace and bring about universal bliss. This grand deception is yet another lie conceived by the one referred to as "that old serpent" (Revelation 12:9).


As history repeats itself, let it be understood that we are living in a time likened as "in the days of Noah" (I Peter 3:20). With "dark skies" prevailing and the overwhelming presence of evil around us, what are we to do? I Corinthians 10:13 explains, "There hath no temptation taken you but such as common to man : but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it." There is no physical place to hide from this onslaught of carnality except by taking refuge in our spiritual fortress, God Almighty (Psalm 91:2).




I.D.E. Thomas, The Omega Conspiracy: Satan's Last Assault on God's Kingdom, Heathstone Publishing Ltd., 1986


Timothy J. Dailey, The Millennial Deception: Aliens, Angels, and the Anti-Christ, Chosen Books, 1995


Nelson S. Pacheco, Ph.D. and Tommy R. Blann, Unmasking The Enemy: Visions and Deception in the End Times, Bendan Press, 1994


David L. Carrico, The Egyptian-Masonic-Satanic Connection, 1992


Christa Tilton, The Bennewitz Papers, Crux Publications, 1992


Dr. Cathy Burns, Hidden Secrets of the Eastern Star, Sharing, 1992


SCP Journal, Alien Encounters, UFOs and the Realm of Shadows, Spiritual Counterfeit Project, 1992


Paul Shockley, UFO/Alien Abductions, The Alien Digest, 1991


Vladamar Valerian, Matrix II: The Abduction and Manipulation of Humans Using Advanced Technology, Leading Edge Research, 1991


Wendy Wallace, The Four Horseman of the Apocalypse and the New World Order, 1995

Again and again, the same fallacious lines of reasoning are being used to justify
a belief that aliens are visiting the Earth

"Aliens are too smart to leave evidence lying around"

Mainstream UFOlogy in North America holds to the ET hypothesis - that the small residual of UFO sightings that cannot be explained are of extra-terrestrial craft. And yet, even the most ardent of believers in the ET hypothesis will admit that there is no physical evidence available that proves that aliens are visiting the Earth. In spite of all the supposed crashes of alien space ships, all of the close encounters, all of the abductions, cattle mutilations and crop circles, all of the archaeological investigations of supposedly alien feats of ancient engineering, not one scrap of physical evidence - nothing ALIEN - has been presented to the scientific community for study. If such evidence were available, there would be no debate about the true nature of UFOs and no room for skepticism about the ET hypothesis.

There are basically two schools of thought within UFOlogy about the absence of physical evidence. One asserts that there is a global conspiracy that descends instantly upon any evidence anywhere in the world, concealing the evidence and silencing its discoverers, in order to prevent the panic that would supposedly result from the certain knowledge that aliens are visiting this Earth. Because this conspiracy requires the collusion of all the world's governments, the cold war, in fact all of recorded human history, must therefore be a sham, because no verifiably alien artifact has EVER been made public.

A somewhat less paranoid explanation for the absence of evidence is that the aliens are just too smart to get caught. The chain of reasoning goes as follows:

  1. Aliens are visiting the Earth, aliens who are a lot smarter than humans, because they can travel between the stars.
  2. Being smarter than us, we can expect them to be able to out-fox our attempts at detecting their presence, and to clean up behind themselves so that no alien artifacts will be left lying around.

But this chain of reasoning, which purports to explain the lack of physical evidence, is nothing more than smoke and mirrors.

Firstly, it says that if aliens are visiting the Earth, they cannot be detected. In other words, because this version of the ET hypothesis is true, no evidence can be found to support it. Furthermore, it cannot be shown to be false either, because the prediction it makes, that no evidence will be found, is indistinguishable from that of the null hypothesis, "aliens are not visiting the Earth".

Secondly, in order for the first part of this version of the ET hypothesis to be shown to be true, the second part has to be false. That is to say, if we do find evidence for alien visitations, then the aliens are not so smart after all. The basic premise of this chain of reasoning cannot be proved to be true without being shown to be false at the same time.

This "sneaky alien hypothesis" says essentially nothing. It is like one of those internal paradoxes that Captain Kirk would use to short-circuit a computer or robot (e.g. "everything I say is a lie"), because it boils down to the statement "I am true, therefore, I cannot be proved". It is of no use whatsoever to any scientist wishing to take a methodical approach to UFOlogy, as it can neither be proved nor disproved, and its only purpose can be to provide a pseudo-rationale for believing the ET hypothesis in the absence of evidence.

If UFOlogy wishes to abandon such smoke-and-mirrors reasoning that has led precisely nowhere in fifty years, what approach should it take? Are skeptics really being unreasonable in demanding physical evidence?

Well, the above analysis seems to be telling us that we may hope to find physical evidence of visitations by "dumb" aliens. Let us examine a short list of phenomena that North American UFOlogists attribute to alien visitations:

  • Flying saucers crashing into the ground
  • Americans being kidnapped and tortured
  • Cows being mutilated
  • Patterns being made in crops

Now, how are we to rate the apparent activities of our supposed alien visitors on a smartness scale?

"Skeptics must prove it wasn't alien"

This bizarre argument has even been put forward by Nick Pope, erstwhile spokesman for the British Ministry of Defence.

It is unreasonable to demand that skeptics prove that a given UFO was not an alien space ship, because it is the burden of the claimant to prove his claim. It is the UFOlogists who claim that some UFOs are alien space ships, therefore, this is what they must prove.

The burden of proof does fall upon the skeptic if he ventures to make a specific claim. If he claims that a given UFO was marsh gas, for example, this is what he must prove. However, most skeptics are content to accept that UFOs are unidentified, the only claim proved by default.

If we are to accept the validity of demanding that skeptics prove that UFOs are not alien space ships, one could also ask them to prove that they are not smurfs on a joy-ride, or evil robots from the future. Following Nick Pope's logic, it would then be reasonable to assert that smurfs or robots exist based upon a lack of proof to the contrary.

What Nick Pope should realize is that it is very difficult to prove a negative. For example, a believer in Santa Claus might challenge skeptics to prove that reindeer cannot fly. A determined skeptic might select 1000 reindeer at random, and throw them off a tall building, but even if they all crash to their deaths, has the skeptic proved that no reindeer can fly?

No, all he has proved is that these particular reindeer could not fly, or chose not to for some reason. Negatives are prohibitively difficult to prove. It would be much easier to prove the positive assertion, that reindeer can fly (if they can), by simply demonstrating one in flight.

And so, it is the burden of the claimant to prove his claim. In the case of UFOs the skeptic would assert that the object was unidentified. This claim is proved by default, because nobody knows what it was. It is for those that wish to claim that it was an alien space ship to prove that it was (1) a space ship and (2) alien.

The claim of alien visitations is not proved by default. Ignorance of what something was is not proof that it was built by aliens.

Of course it is easier to believe in alien visitations if one turns the rules of logic and science on their heads, simply assumes that anything that cannot be explained was caused by aliens, and defies the skeptics to prove otherwise. But in the real world it does not work that way.

The burden of proof falls upon the claimant, not those skeptical of the claim. If UFOlogists wish to claim that aliens are visiting the Earth, then they must prove it. It is not proved by default simply because nobody can prove that aliens are not visiting the Earth, or explain every UFO story in prosaic terms.

One final thought: if there really was abnormal radiation in Rendlesham Forest, the Ministry of Defence should probably be asking tougher questions of the American Air Force, and not skeptics, if it really wants to know how it got there.

"Scientists think they know everything and are afraid of new ideas"

This is like saying "archaeologists think all the world's ruins have already been uncovered and are afraid of digging", because

  • Science is a method for discovering new stuff
  • Scientists do science for a living
  • Scientists are therefore attempting to discover new stuff, a process that requires them to have (and test) new ideas
  • Therefore they do not think that they know everything and are not afraid of new ideas.

"Skeptics debunk UFOs without even looking at the data"

UFOlogy has developed its own vocabulary and re-defines the meaning of words to suit its own agenda. So let us be clear about the true meaning of the words we are using.

Believer - somebody who accepts an unproven assertion as an act of faith.

Skeptic - somebody who requires an assertion to be proved before accepting it.

Naysayer - somebody who rejects an assertion without regard to the evidence.

Debunker - somebody who exposes an assertion as bunk.

The terms "skeptic" and "debunker" are not synonymous, and should not be used interchangeably. To be a skeptic is simply to doubt, to question, to ask for evidence probative of the assertion being made. To debunk is to show that a specific claim is not true, to expose a hoax, for example.

Debunkers perform a great service to serious UFOlogy by exposing hoaxes (such as MJ-12), misidentifications, lies and honest mistakes. Skeptics perform a similar service, obliging UFOlogy to prove its claims.

IUFOS advocates the application of the scientific method to UFOlogy and so I shall outline the scientific point of view with respect to the making and proving of claims.

The scientific method allows for two positions concerning claims: the advocate and the skeptic. The advocate advances or supports the claim, the skeptic evaluates the claim. A typical scientist plays both roles at different times.

In the scientific method, the burden of proof lies with the advocate, not the skeptic. The advocate says "people are being abducted by aliens", and lays out his arguments. The skeptic considers the arguments and decides: is the available evidence probative of the claim being made?

Another advocate may make a different claim, for example: "alien abduction memories are an artifact of hypnosis". He, too, must lay out his evidence for the scrutiny of the skeptics.

In UFOlogy, an advocate who claims that a given UFOlogical phenomenon may be explained in prosaic terms (i.e. not in terms of the ET hypothesis), is called a "debunker". But let us note that a skeptic never lays out a claim of his own - if he did, he would be an advocate, and would have to prove his claim like any other advocate.

Now, what do we mean by "proof"? According to the scientific method, it means falsifying the appropriate null hypothesis. To take a concrete example, if an advocate proposes that John Doe was abducted by aliens, providing proof means proving that the null hypothesis (that aliens did not abduct John Doe) is wrong. The skeptic will demand that the advocate prove that (1) John Doe was abducted and that (2) aliens were involved. The advocate must therefore disprove the null hypotheses that (1) John Doe was not abducted and (2) aliens were not involved.

The claim central to the position of advocates of the ET hypothesis is that aliens are visiting the Earth. To prove this, they must disprove the null hypothesis that aliens are not visiting the Earth. That is to say, they must produce something that can only be explained in terms of alien visitations, like an alien, or an artifact with extraterrestrial isotope ratios.

The burden of proof lies with the advocate (whatever position he takes) and not the skeptic. The skeptic merely decides whether or not the evidence offered by the advocate disproves the appropriate null hypothesis.

As a skeptic I don't care how many people remember having been abducted by aliens. Neither do I care whether or not these claims can be explained in prosaic terms. I require the null hypothesis, that aliens are not involved, to be falsified, before I will consider the ET hypothesis to have been proved. I require physical evidence of the presence of intelligent aliens on Earth.

Something ALIEN.

Physical Evidence

Skeptics are sometimes criticized for demanding physical evidence of alien visitations. It is an unreasonable demand, believers say, because aliens are intelligent and cunning, and one cannot expect them to leave physical evidence of their presence on Earth.

Well, such an argument may make sense to somebody who is prepared to believe in alien visitations as an act of faith, in the same way that some people believe in angels. But the undeniable fact of the matter is that there is no probative physical evidence that compels us to conclude that aliens are visiting the Earth.

There simply is no alien space ship on display in a museum somewhere, in fact, there is no object in existence on Earth of which we can say "this must have been made by aliens". Of course it is possible to believe in alien visitations nonetheless, as an act of faith, but the great majority of scientists do not believe it, because it has not been proven in a rigorous scientific manner.

Those believers that reject the more extreme claims of popular UFOlogy, such as cattle mutilations, crop circles and even perhaps alien abductions, tend to fall back upon government and military reports obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. A well-known example is the US Air Force's own Project Sign "Estimate of the Situation", issued in 1948 that concluded that flying saucers were real and that they came from outer space.

To what extent is such a report authoritative? A scientifically trained individual looking at such a statement would ask "is this conclusion justified by the data presented?" That is to say, is such a conclusion forced upon us as the most economical way to explain that data, or is it the result of sloppy analysis and/or wishful thinking? In the case of the Project Sign "estimate," General Hoyt S. Vandenberg did not believe that the report's evidence was sufficient to support its conclusions, and he rejected it.

For those among us that are not prepared to believe in alien visitations simply as an act of faith, physical evidence is the key to everything. We will believe, if some artifact can be found on Earth that is demonstrably alien. Let us note here that "unidentified" and "demonstrably alien" are not synonymous. Just because a given UFO sighting cannot be explained it does not follow that it has been proved to be an alien space ship.

Short of a flying saucer landing on the White House lawn, where lie the best chances to obtain a demonstrably alien artifact? If we are to believe the stories told (or "remembered" under hypnosis) by those claiming to have been abducted by aliens, it seems that we should direct our attention first to those "alien implants" recovered from these people.

The stakes here are extremely high. If these "implants" can be shown to have been manufactured by aliens, then people really are being abducted by aliens. If, on the other hand, it cannot be shown that the "implants" are alien, then we must ask serious questions of the "researchers" who have elicited the testimony from the "abductees".

With the stakes so high, it is essential, in our opinion, that these analyses be conducted in accordance with the highest standards of scientific inquiry. Most importantly, we must demand that the UFOlogists prove what they claim. They are claiming that the "implants" have an alien origin. It is therefore not enough to show that they are "100% pure" or that they have an "unusual composition" or that they contain chemical elements also found in radio transmitters. They have to show that aliens made them.

One simple test would be enough to grab the attention of most scientists - an isotopic analysis of the material from which the implant is composed. We can reasonably expect that a device made by aliens from materials obtained in another solar system will exhibit isotope ratios different than those found on Earth. Such a test goes straight to the heart of the claim being made for the "implant" and would avoid all the obfuscation and hyperbole about "100% purity" and the like.

We urge the UFOlogical community to adopt properly scientific standards of investigation and proof in their work. They have to support their conclusions with probative evidence and rigorous reasoning and to confront the skeptics with the evidence they so dearly seek - a demonstrably alien artifact.