Worse, the fact that this craft and other flying saucers had been surveying our defensive installations and even seemed to evidence a technology we'd seen evidenced by the Nazis caused the military to assume these flying saucers had hostile intentions and might have even interfered in human events during the war.
~ Colonel Philip J. Corso, (Retired) with William J. Birnes, The Day After Roswell
A different interpretation of two famous UFO "crash and recovery" cases than is the standard in the UFOlogy community, is the thesis that somewhere, someone was continuing the line of very secret black projects the Nazis had initiated. The two famous cases are the 1947 Roswell crash, and the 1965 Kecksburg, Pennsylvania crash.
Speculative reinterpretations of these two events are impelled, in part, by the two remarkable statements made by Colonel Philip J. Corso in his well-known book, The Day After Roswell. Indeed, these statements of Corso, coming as they do in a book whose main thesis is the seeding of recovered "alien" (i.e., extraterrestrial, and not "foreign") technology into American industry, are for that very reason all the more remarkable, and they seem to invite such a reinterpretation. But what exactly is the ET myth of the UFO? To examine it, one must place it within the multitude of hypotheses that attempt to explain the genuine UFO phenomenon:
(1) The phenomenon represents a spiritual deception by demons of the human race;
(2) The phenomenon represents a life form from higher dimensions, or perhaps a life form composed directly of electromagnetic energy or even plasmas;
(3) The phenomenon represents intelligently controlled real physical spacecraft from other planets, usually with the tacit understanding that these are the craft form planets of other solar systems, and that the craft have thus traveled a minimum of four light years to visit earth, since the closest neighboring star is four light years away;
(4) The phenomenon is terrestrial and human in origin (usually with the added condition that they are government black projects back-engineered from captured or crashed extraterrestrial craft, and sometimes in conjunction with the hypothesis that the "visitors" are humans from our own future).
THEORIES OF UFO ORIGIN AND INTENTIONALITY
It is a generally established fact that the bulk of UFO sightings that are considered genuine are usually interpreted in UFOlogy by the fourth hypothesis, with numbers two and three following not far behind.
The well-known quantum and plasma physicist David Bohm, for example, came to the conclusion that some of the plasmas with which he experimented in his early career exhibitted the sort of self-organizing properties that one normally ascribes to life. Bohm ended his plasma experiments at that point.
It is consequently fair to say that an "ET Myth" or perhaps better, an "ET paradigm" has grown around the phenomenon to such an extent that any serious study or contemplation of the possibility of a terrestrial human origin and explanation for these events is seldom considered seriously. And the US Air Force's own ridiculous explanations of Roswell - from weather balloons, crashed Japanese bamboo balloon-bombs, and Project Mogul balloons designed to monitor Soviet nuclear tests (which in any case were not to begin until two years later) - have only added fuel to the ET Myth as the regnant paradigm by which to interpret these two signal events.
By designating this interpretaive framework by the term " ET Myth" os not to imply that there is no basis in solid research or rational conjecture for it. The term "myth" is used here not in the contemporary sense of implying something "unreal" but in its classic sense as an all-encompassing paradigm by which an unusual phenomenon, in this case flying saucers, tends to be interpreted even by the best, most objective, and scrupulous researchers. [ie. UFOlogists such as Don Berliner, Stanton Friedman, Timothy Good, and Nick Pope.]
Yet there is another "myth" of the flying saucer phenomenon, ad once one admits into the discussion a possible terrestrial origin and explanation for the phenomenon, one will inevitably have to deal with this other myth and its historical origins in World War Two.
The Similarity of Evidence for Roswell and the "Nazi Legend"
The "Legend" of a Nazi origin of many wartime and postwar UFO reports received a big "credibility boost" when a researcher and reporter for the prestigious Jane's Defence Weekly, British reporter Nick Cook, wrote a book on anti-gravity and quantum zero point energy research called The Hunt for Zero Point. The "credibility boost" that Cook's book gave to this Nazi Legend might even be seen as analogous to the "credibility boost" that Colonel Corso's book gave to the Roswell crash and the ET interpretation of it.
Cook's book, like Corso's in some respects, is a personal chronicle, summarizing in anecdotal fashion his own personal research into American anti-gravity projects - a "hunt" as he calls it – that quickly led him to a very unsuspected source: Nazi Germany. Recounting how many of the best reports of "foo fighters" or UFOs during the war were submitted by the 415th Night Fighter Squadron, and occurred in a triangle over southern Germany from Frankfurt-am-Main, Metz, and Strasbourg in the year 1944, Cook then recounts his discovery of the book that gave birth to the Legend, German Major Rudolf Lusar's German Secret Weapons of World War Two:
Seeking clues to the foo-fighter mystery, I discovered a copy in the reading room of the Imperial War Museum. In it, Lusar described in meticulous detail, in language that often made the depths of his bitterness clear, the technical achievements of 'a small, industrious and honest nation which lost the war.'
'Secret Weapons' made somber reading. Although German technical achievements were visible in developments such as the V-l flying bomb, a direct forerunner of the modern-day cruise missile, and the V-2 ballistic missile, it was the vast extent of Germany's underpinning technology base, as revealed by Lusar, which showed just how far ahead of the Allies the Nazis had been in certain key areas.
Jet engines, rocket engines, infrared and thermal-imaging systems, proximity fuses, missiles guidance seekers....technologies that are integral to most modern aircraft and airborne weapon systems were all listed and described. In the late 1950s, when Lusar's book first appeared, these technologies were still in their infancy in Britain and America.
Yet the Germans had been working on them a decade and a half earlier.
But there was another side to the book, one which was so sensational that immediately on its appearance it had set alarm bells ringing in Washington.
This side of the book related to so-called German 'wonder-weapons' beyond the V-l and V-2.... Other esoteric developments detailed by Lusar showed that the Germans had been working on bringing down Allied aircraft with sound waves, air vortices, intensely focused beams of light and jets of compressed air.
In 1958, the US Air Force commissioned a 'special studies group' within Air Force Intelligence headed by an Austrian-born technical consultant called Dr Stefan Possony to carry out a detailed appraisal of Lusar's book. The research effort was branded 'secret' and has only recently come to light....
A section in Lusar's book was devoted to 'flying sacuers' which he asserted, in no uncertain terms, were the product of German wartime inventors. 'Experts and collaborators in this work confirm that the first projects, called "flying disks", were undertaken in 1941,' Lusar wrote. He even went on to name the key individuals involved. These were 'the German experts Schriever, Habermohl, and Miethe, and the Italian Belllonzo. Rudolf Schriever was the first to recount for the West German media, in the 1950s, the work he had done for the Heinkel company in 1940-1941 on flying disk aerodynes.
Cook's thesis is explicating a possible underlying "German" connection to the Roswell crash and cover-up:
Make the link between Germany and the flying sacuer and here was an opportunity to solve not only the anti-gravity propulsion riddle, but, in the process, perhaps, one of the most baffling mysteries of the 20th century: the origins of the UFO.... The flying disc must have exhibited performance so in advance of its time that it had been super-classified, then hidden in plain sight - behind the UFO myth - for the best part of 60 years.
However, as Cook quickly discovered, the Nazi Legend has a significant problem: Lusar mentioned four names, but other than these four names, the testimony for the Legend, until very recently, was based almost completely on hearsay. There were no declassified documents in the 1950s and 1960s to back up Lusar's incredible story. Indeed, it was only with German reunification and the subsequent "declassification spree" that it prompted that corroborating documentation finally became available, and in sufficient quantity and quality to constitute a solid prima facie case.
It is this fact, that the trail into the Legend seems to lead nowhere and yet everywhere at one and the same time, that is the main reason it is so seldom pursued by serious UFO researchers, most of whom simply laugh it off when confronted with it, especially in the North American UFOlogy community.
But the problem with the Nazi Legend is really not with its early uncorroborated hearsay testimony, nor even with its then quite unsubstantiated claims in the postwar West German media. [Rudolf Schriever was the first to recount for the West German media, in the 1950s, the work he had done for the Heinkel company in 1940-1941 on flying disk aerodynes.] The problem was not really with the second-hand or hearsay testimony of a few dead men and a few odd documents claiming a secret provenance deep within the black projects of the Waffen SS.
The problem is that the same basic type of evidence exists for the Roswell incident of the alleged crash of a flying saucer. Beyond the fact that there were a few primary source witnesses - Mac Brazzel, Jesse Marcel, Walter Haut and so on - that researchers such as William Moore, Charles Berlitz and Stanton Friedman were able to interview personally, there are a whole host of secondary testimonies to the event that have surfaced since then. In this very general respect, the dynamics of the Roswell ET Myth and the Nazi UFO Legend are remarkably similar. And like the Nazi Legend, classified documents showed up to corroborate the story, only this time, the documents were not declassified, but rather, apparently leaked to the UFOlogy community. These are, of course, the now famous (or depending on one's lights, infamous) MJ-12, or Majestic-12, or Majic-12 documents.
In the pro-UFO community, much fanfare has been made over the years about the "dozens" or even "hundreds" of eyewitnesses to the alleged UFO crash near Roswell.... In the pro-UFO book The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt note the fact that Bill Moore [Co-author, with Charles Berlitz, of the first thorough account of the Roswell crash, The Roswell Incident] interviewed "more than seventy witnesses who had some knowledge of the (Roswell UFO crash) event (sic)." Indeed, both Friedman and Moore, around the time of the in itial publication of the Roswell Incident in 1980, boasted that they had interviewed more then "ninety witnesses."
While these double digit figures are certainly accurate, the presentation of such a seemingly impressive number of witnesses by themselves, without qualifications, is misleading. The relevant issue is not how many witnesses were interviewed, but rather what type of witnesses (i.e., firsthand, secondhand, etc.) these people are and how truthful and accurate their statements are.
Unfortunately, a careful reading of Moore and Berlitz's Roswell Incident reveals that despite the impressive claim of having "interviewed more than seventy witnesses," the testimonies of just twenty-five people are presented. Out of these twenty-five, only seven of them are firsthand sources who claim to have seen the alleged saucer debris, and one of these accounts is suspect. Of these seven people, however, only five of them claim to have actually handled the material personally, and one of them is adamant that it was not from an extraterrestrial spacecraft [Kal K. Korff, The Roswell UFO Crash]
Researcher interviews of a few primary source "eyewitnesses": this much the Roswell ET Myth and the Nazi UFO Legend have in common. The problem thus posed by the mere existence of the Nazi Legend in this context is therefore very significant: Why does one event form such a stable and consistent foundation in the historiography of the ET-UFO Mythos, and why is the other hypothesis so consistently avoided by the same community, when in general, both the ET explanation of the Roswell incident, and the Nazi UFO Legend are based upon not only the same types of evidence, but initially, the same approximate quantity of evidence? Put differently, why is the ET Myth so predominant in all "unofficial" explanations of the Roswell crash, and the hypothesis of a terrestrially-originated though exotic technology as an explanation consistently avoided?
The answer lies in some peculiarities of the Majic-12 documents themselves.
The Majic-12 Documents: The ET Myth vs the Nazi Legend
The Majic-12 documents are well-known in UFOlogy circles, and a controversy has ensued over their genuineness and authenticy, or lack thereof. The documents themselves purport to be highly classified top secret memoranda, studies, and so on, concerning the Roswell crash and its aftermath: the establishment of a deep cover, highly classified UFO retrieval, back-engineering, and study group composed of top civilian and military leaders with a large black projects budget. The documents, complete with many blacked out areas - represented by strings of question marks "?????" in the quotations which follow - were leaked to the public in two different sets.
As well known and respected UFOlogist Stanton Friedman put it, the first set of documents arrived in December of 1984, quite literally "on Jaimie Shandera's doorstep." [Stanton Friedman, Top Secret/Majic] Shandera, a film director, had contacted Friedman about the possibility of doing a fictional movie concerning UFOs, wanting Friedman to be a consultant for the movie.
Then, in December 1984, the Majestic-12 documents showed up on Jaimie Shandera'a doorstep.
To be more exact, a roll of undeveloped black-and-white 35mm film came in the mail to Shandera's home in Burbank in a double- wrapped plain brown envelope with no return address and an Albuquerque, New Mexico postmark. Why was it sent to Jaimie? One possibility is that it was well-known that Shandera had been working closely with Bill Moore and myself on the Roswell crash story, and that together with Bill, had had many contacts with insiders, some of whom were connected with OSI in Albuquerque.
Bill and Jaime's meetings with Agent Doty and others had left them with the impression that these insiders were interested in having the facts about flying saucers released to the public, in a manner that would protect their identity and their status. But we may never know.
After Bill and Jaime developed the film, they called me. What they found on the film were duplicate sets of eight pages of documents that were classified TOP SECRET/MAJ1C, with a title page declaring "Briefing Document: Operation Majestic 12 prepared for President Elect Dwight D. Eisenhower: (Eyes Only) 18 November 1952." The second page listed the members of the Majestic-12 group, all of whom were dead....
Incredible as it sounded, the documents on this film dealt with the New Mexico crashes as well as with the government's efforts to keep them secret. According to the briefing, the wreckage of a crashed saucer was recovered by the U.S. government 75 miles northwest of Roswell in early July 1947. Four small alien bodies, apparently ejected from the vehicle, were found two miles east of the main wreckage site. The government took into its possession the wreckage and the bodies for careful study and evaluation, and in September 1947, officially established Operation Majestic-12 as a "top secret Research and Development/Intelligence operation responsible directly and only to the President of the United States."
Friedman, as any serious investigator would, approached the question of the authenticity of the document cautiously.
There were, as he saw it, three possible explanations of the document, if indeed it was legitimate, and if indeed it was genuinely leaked. The documents could be:
(1) legitimate in the sense of genuinely originating from the military-intelligence community, but they could have been composed or intended to be disinformation or a hoax in some elaborate psychological warfare operation;
(2) legitimate in the sense that they might "contain some truth mixed with some phony material;"
(3) could be "Plain straight legitimate."
Most of the controversy within the UFOlogical community has centered on options (1) and (3), between those who maintain that they are a simple hoax or part of some disinformation operaton, and those who believe that they are "plain straight legitimate." Friedman's own case for the authenticity of the "Eisenhower Briefing Document" is thorough and persuasive.
Then, as Friedman, Moore, and Shandera were investigating the Eisenhower Briefing Document, a second set of purported Majic-12 top secret documents were leaked, this time to UFOlogist Don Berliner, and a mystified man in California named Timothy Cooper. In March of 1994, Don Berliner, like Jaime Shandera ten years earlier, received a roll of undeveloped Tri-X film in his mail box. The film contained what was allegedly the actual operations manual for UFO recovery teams called the "Special Operations Manual."
But the most sensational Majic-12 documents are doubtless those leaked to Timothy Cooper, the so-called "Cooper-Cantwheel Majic-12" documents. Cooper, who had grown up near the White Sands Missile range, had become interested in the subject of UFOs and secret missile research as a youth when someone shared information about UFOs with him. His curiosity piqued, he began research on the top secret facility by filing FOIA requests, assembling a large and thorough collection of government documents. Then in 1992, Cooper began receiving photocopied Majic-12 documents in his mail box from a man calling himself "Thomas Cantwheel." [Dr. Robert M. and Ryan S. Wood, The Secret: Evidence that We Are Not Alone (DVD disk, 1988); Dr. Robert M. and Ryan S. Wood: The Majestic Documents. The latter book is simply a reproduction of the document copies received by Cooper, along with a parallel typescript text of the documents for ease of reading, since in many cases the quality of the copies is degraded, making reading of the original document difficult.]
Friedman falls into the group arguing for option three: "Based on my detailed study and investigation of the overall UFO phenomenon beginning in 1958, I am equally certain that (1) some UFOs are intelligently controlled extraterrestrial spacecraft; (2) the subject of flying saucers represents a kind of cosmic Watergate, wherein a relatively small group of people in government have known about the visitors for many years; (3) none of the anti-UFO arguments made by a small but vocal group of debunkers stand up under scrutiny; and (4) visits by extraterrestrial space vehicles and the successful 50-year coverup of the best evidence (alien bodies and wreckage) is the biggest story of the millenium."
Cooper contacted Friedman, who was not only well-known in UFOlogy, but by that time well established as an expert on the authenticity issues of the first Majic-12 document, the so-called "Eisenhower Briefing" document. Friedman, living now in Nova Scotia, put Cooper in contact with Robert and Ryan Wood, two associates with some expertise in document authentication. Again Wood and Wood argued quite persuasively for the authenticity of the documents, but again, following option (3), they argued that the documents are "plain straight legitimate."
Two of the Cantwheel Majic-12 documents have become focal points of UFOlogy interest, and for good reason: The "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" of Air Force General Nathan Twining, and the "Majestic Twelve Project First Annual Report." These are the documents that contain actual technical descriptions of the alleged crashed alien craft recovered at Roswell, along with recommendations on what to do about it.
Accordingly, we shall accept the arguments of Robert and Ryan Wood and their exhaustive process of document authentication, and assume that the documents are legitimate, and using internal indications and inconsistencies, we shall argue that these two documents are best interpreted as containing part truth, and part deliberate deception, and that both of these elements point possibly, though nowhere near conclusively, to a terrestrial, and German, origin for the exotic craft that crashed in New Mexico in 1947, and that this is the element that is the ultimate objective of the cover-up, as alluded to by Colonel Corso's statements that form the epigrams at the top. The methodology will be that already hinted at by Corso's statements, and more completely outlined by Nick Cook:
Make the link between Germany and the flying saucer and here was an opportunity to solve not only the anti-gravity propulsion riddle, but, in the process, perhaps, one of the most baffling mysteries of the 20th century: the origins of the UFO.... The flying disc must have exhibited performance so in advance of its time that it had been super-classified, then hidden in plain sight-behind the UFO myth -for the best part of 60 years.
In brief, there are two levels at work in the Majic- 12, "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" and the "First Annual Report" documents:
(1) A genuine level, in which the technical aspects of the recovered technology are summarized. As will be indicated, there are glaring discrepancies between these descriptions, and a presumption of an extraterrestrial origin, for the recovered technology. Conversely, as will be shown, there are detailed parallels between the descriptions of the recovered technology of the Roswell crash, and the secret weapons black projects of Nazi Germany.
(2) A level of disinformation, where the emerging "ET explanation" forms a final deep cover layer of disinformation behind the public explanations of crashed weather or Project Mogul balloons.
The resulting clash of these two emphases constitutes one basis for those who would wish to challenge the authenticity of the documents, which they most certainly are.
1. The "White Hot Intelligence Estimate " of General Nathan Twining
The "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" is actually the first part of a Majic-12 document called "Mission Assessment of Recovered Lenticular Aerodyne Objects and Implications in ??????AR??". [Wood and Wood, The Majestic Documents. The strings of question marks correspond to the blacked-out areas of the original photocopies.]
This document is the second examination of the crashed vehicles - note the plural - describing some aspects of the technology retrieved and analyzed by the military after the Roswell incident.
Besides the standard authenticating features thoroughly investigated by Wood and Wood - typeface comparisons, document style manual and orthography and so on - all of which is strongly in favor of authenticity, there are a number of internal descriptions that do not make sense if the recovered object were of extraterrestrial origin and interplanetary travel capability. That is, the best explanation of this particular document seems to lie not with Friedman's options (1) or (3), but with option (2), that they contain some truth mixed with phony or deliberately distorted material. As will be seen as we proceed, a disturbing hypothetical scenario begins to emerge if one examines this document not from the interpretive paradigm of the ET Myth (option (3)), but from the perspective of the Nazi Legend (and option (2)). In arguing for this latter interpretation of the document, we shall focus on three key areas:
(a) Odd language of a general nature describing the UFO phenomenon and areas and types of activity as they were then known;
(b) incongruous technical language that describes something simultaneously both very advanced, and yet very commonplace;
(c) ambiguous language reflecting perhaps an amount of indecision or hesitation concerning the nature of what was recovered, and what to do about it.
With these thoughts in mind, we begin by noting the first and most obvious point: both the Roswell crash and Admiral Byrd's Operation Highjump, with the admiral's astounding statement in the South American Chilean El Mercurio, occur in the same year, within a few months of each other.
After a brief history of the postwar UFO phenomenon, beginning with Kenneth Arnold's June 1947 sighting, the document then points out the apparent interest of "ET" in our military installations: "Numerous sightings over military installations in the state of New Mexico were investigated by Army and Navy intelligence officers." The report also mentions sightings in "Sweden and Germany, Holland, Paraguay, Scandinavia, Greece, by ships at sea."
A typical explanation from the ET paradigm is that UFOs began to exhibit an interest in our military installations and increased their monitoring activities of the human race afer it had mastered nuclear energy and weaponized it in the atom bomb, possibly fearing that we might venture into outer space and bringing our warlike habits and weapons of mass destruction with us. As an explanation of "their" then evident "observe but do not contact" behavior, this is plausible. We were being surveilled, if not reconnoitered. But such behavior in itself means nothing, for such patterns could equally describe monitoring and surveilling operations of wholly terrestrial but unknown origins.
Note also the curious wording of paragraph 6: "Sweden and Germany....Scandinavia." Why the redundancy? A possible explanation, though one not indicated by the document itself, is that two different types of phenomena might be being referred to. However, "Sweden and Germany, Holland, Paraguay, Scandinavia, Greece" and "ships at sea" would not seem to be of the same interest to "ET" if the purpose of the monitoring activity was, as some like Friedman have suggested, to measure human progress in atomic energy applications and weapons. This vague inconsistency then becomes more acute once attention is focused on the technical descriptions of the document.
Perhaps the best evidence that the document should be interpreted as being both genuine and yet containing "phony" or "faked" elements concerns the technical descriptions and references. For example, immediately after the odd refernce to sightings in Sweden and Germany and then "Scandinavia", the document then goes on to record the "extraordinary capabilities" of the recovered craft:
Of the 1,200 sighting reports collect (sic) since 1942 approximately 200 incidents have proven to be unknown craft operation (sic) at speeds in excess of 1200 MPH and at times attaining altitudes up to ?? miles or more above the earth. A comparison was made with Swedish Defense officials of the reported operating ????????????????????????????a sec? intelligence liaison official????? Continuing views of restricted air space over sensitive Swedish military base has not indicated any direct ??????????? tangible evidence thus far that would suggest ????? are the ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????.
While speeds of 1,200 MPH were indeed extraordinary for any aircraft of the day (and even today), and hence noteworthy enough to be noted in the document, and while performance characteristics that enabled these craft to achieve altitudes of some unknown number of miles above the earth were likewise equally if not more extraordinary, the important point to notice is that such speeds are certainly not the extreme characteristics that one would expect of a product of an advanced "ET" civilization with interstellar, or even interplanetary capability limited to our own solar system.
To put it succinctly, the performance characteristics described are not advanced enough to be extraterrestrial in origin.
Note that if the craft's speed were in the area of a mere 1,200 MPH, as this portion of the document states, then the use of such a craft for interplanetary exploration would seem to be absurd in the extreme, particularly if it is maintained that these craft originated from outside our solar system, which is the presumption implicit with every "ET" interpretation of the Roswell event. If one conceded top speeds of even ten thousand miles per hour for the craft, then a trip to Mars, our closest planetary neighbor at approximately 36,000,000 miles from the earth, would take 150 days. At a mere 1,200 miles per hour, however, a journey to Mars would take about 1,250 days, or almost three and a half years, and neither of these figures is even factoring in the positions of the planets at any given moment of their orbital periods around the sun nor the curved trajectory such craft would have to follow between the two planets! As will be obvious, however, such performance characteristics are within the performance capabilities suggested by the advanced German aircraft technologies being developed by Kammler's "think tank."
When one thus turns to the actual first part of the document after this historical overview, the technological ambiguity is only increased, rather than assuaged. The first part of this detailed technical assessment is called "Project White Hot Intelligence Estimate (Preliminary)." Here it is necessary to cite the document at length:
LANDING ZONE NO. 1 Socorro, New Mexico -The unidentified lenticular-shaped aerodyne which has been designated ULAT-1, has been evaluated as a non-air breathing aircraft of unknown origin. Totally lacking conventional wing, fuselage, nacelle, control, and fuel systems strongly indicates it is not Russian. Consultation with Paperclip specialists concur. Aerodynamic features exhibited in ULAT-1 represent a very high degree of engineering and sophistication not seen in this country. Dimensional homogeneity study cannot explain how this craft sustains load and lift factors necessary for flight. The power plant does not resemble any conventional type now in use. Lacking any discernible intake or exhaust features, it is the opinion of AMC and ONR that this craft was designed to operate outside of the earth's atmosphere. The unconventional conclusions reached by members of this fact-finding mission remain tentative at this time. Some members expressed the view that ULAT-1 may be the product of an advanced culture from another planet that is much older than ours and has utilized the science and intellect for interplanetary space travel. It is not precisely known if the occupants purposely had the objective of exploration out of curiosity or with the intent of surveying for other reasons. So far, no hostile intent has been observed since they made their presence known. Given the fact that our atomic bomb tests, atmospheric exploration with rockets, and ???????????????????????????????ed in New Mexico, could have precipitated the events that led to the incident and subsequent actions taken by the military.
Operating under the assumption that the fallen object was a long-range Russian reconnaissance platform collecting aerial photographic intelligence data, military intelligence personnel were instructed to secure the craft, debris and the occupants as rapidly as possible. Concerns over possible exposure to civilians of known biological and chemical agents dictated the quarantine measures taken. Radiation hazards were assumed and appropriate protective measure were taken as well.
In the interest of National Security priorities it was necessary to detain civilian witnesses for interrogation to satisfy intelligence requirements, and quash rumors that could alert potential espionage agents known to be in the vicinity.
Several bodies were discovered. Because on-site medical personnel were unsure of the physiological and biological make-up of the occupants, special preparations and preservation methods were employed autopsy information obtained so far suggests that the occupants mimic the features associated with Orientals. Outwardly they appear human-like with but one exception: autopsy notes mention a rarely observed ??????????????????????????????????s present which supports the premise that these beings originate from another planet. 
There are two sets of factors in this quotation that, taken separately, seem to argue persuasively that one is dealing with an extremely advanced but nonetheless very terrestrial phenomenon, or that, conversely, argue persuasively that one is dealing with a very advanced extraterrestrial phenomenon, but that taken together present an ambiguous and puzzling picture. It is their occurrence in the same context, without apparent analysis or attempt to resolve the ambiguity, that requires interpretation and explanation.
Note first of all that, at this stage of the "preliminary investigation" the origins of the craft remain, in its own word, "unknown." But a little later on the document indicates that there was apparently some internal dissention in the preliminary study group: "Some members expressed the view that ULAT-1 may be the product of an advanced culture from another planet..." In other words, there appears to have been genuine indecision and hesitancy on where to attribute the origin of the craft. This tends to be an internal corroboration and consistency with what we have already observed above regarding the recovered technology and the craft's performance characteristics, for apparently the recovered technology, considered as a factor in and of itself, is not sufficiently advanced enough to argue on its own basis for an extraterrestrial origin. What does argue for the extraterrestrial nature is not the recovered technology, but the recovered biology. It is the clash of these two sets of facts, then, that appears to be behind the hinted-at internal dissention in the study group when it came to the question of origins of the recovered vehicle.
There is another technological bombshell that deserves to be weighed carefully in the light of what has already been stated regarding the Nazi UFO Legend and Kammler's think tank: "Totally lacking conventional wing, fuselage, nacelle, control and fuel systems strongly indicates it is not Russian. Consultation with Paperclip specialists concur." The question that now inevitably arises is this: Would the us military have been likely to consult the nearby former Nazi rocket scientists in its employment if it even remotely suspected that what had fallen into its hands was something extraterrestrial, and thereby, technologically extremely advanced and sophisticated? I think it is possible, but very unlikely. The more likely explanation was hinted at by Colonel Corso himself in the epigrams that began this chapter: the German Paperclip scientists were shown the recovered vehicle, which on Corso's own admission looked like one of the Horten brothers' flying wings, because the craft itself and its performance characteristics were highly suggestive of similar high performance and unconventional aerodynes under development by Nazi Germany.
In this context, the very next statement is perhaps very telling and suggestive, for the language is very careful and deliberate: "Aerodynamic features exhibited in ULAT-1 represent a very high degree of engineering and sophistication not seen in this country." If an "ET" origin were suspected, and that explanation already agreed upon, then the sentence would have read "Aerodynamic features exhibited in ULAT-1 represent a very high degree of engineering and sophistication not seen on this planet." So what country is meant here, and in this context? Only three countries are immediately represented in the previous discussion. Was it Russia? Germany? or the United States? Once again, the language retreats into ambiguity, though the clearest explanation is that the country referred to is the United States, otherwise, why bring in the German Paperclip scientists to render their opinion?
At this juncture an odd transition occurs, for in the segue to the discussion of the recovered bodies, the "ET" myth begins to surface in this context as a plausible explanation for explaining the UFOs' military-style surveilling activities, activities begun, so the document surmises, in response to humanity's detonation of atom bombs during the war and after. This explanation, in feet, was arrived at years later, and quite independently, by astute UFOlogists such as Friedman.
With the mention of recovered bodies the segue is complete, and one is now confronted by a set of data and descriptions totally at variance with the technical data and the data-set favoring terrestrial origins hypothesis: "Several bodies were discovered....Outwardly, they appear human-like with but one exceptions....a rarely observed...," and then follows a blacked out area. A rarely observed what? Presumably a rarely observed physiological feature in humans, but evidently recurring in all of the recovered bodies. Was it a rare blood type or blood disease? Webbed toes and digits? Extra or missing fingers? We do not know. But having blacked out this all-important and conclusive feature, the document then concludes that this "rarely observed something" supports "the premise that these beings originate from another planet." Note then that, as far as the document itself is concerned, it is not the recovered technology but the recovered biology that argues the most persuasively for the ET origins of the craft. But this conclusion, as it stands, is for us, if not for the writer and compiler of the report itself, an argument from silence. The ET explanation is therefore the weaker of the two explanations internal to the document as they have been publicly redacted and received.
The second part of the document is entitled "Technical Evaluation (Preliminary)." Here it will be necessary to cite this part of the document in fall, including once again the blacked out portions, in order to exhibit the fall extent of the contradictory nature of these two very different data-sets.
PART II TECHNICAL EVALUATION (PRELIMINARY) ULAT-1
Upon close examination of the exterior surfaces of the craft's fuselage, metallurgists found the skin to be of a ferrous metal white in color. The metal exhibits all the characteristics of high-grade steel. It was determined that the steel was cold-formed and heat-treated. Tensile strength was estimated in excess of 150,000 pounds per square inch. Shear tests give the metal a durability rating about 175,000 pounds per square inch, making the fuselage extremely strong and heat resistant.
Static and pressure flow simulations were impressive. The low profile ratio of 6-to-l gives the aerodyne a great advantage in overcoming the restrictions of the boundary layer effect in high performance operations.
Spar flanges are constructed in unusual kinematic design which is believe (sic) to allow strain relief at supersonic speeds. There were no visible signs of plate-stiffeners. There were no fasteners, weld (sic), rivets, or fitting holding the fuselage together.
Lack of wings, flaps, stabilizers, and surface control features suggests that the craft is a lifting body.
There are no air intakes or exhaust.
There are no cables.
There are no identifiable electronics (wiring, ignition, lights, instrument, compartment, engine, motors, vacuum tubes, solenoids, generators, heaters, etc.)
The power plant (severely damaged) ???????????????? neutronic negine. ????????????????? Detected. Heavy water and deuterium (light hydrogen) elements appear to be the primary ignitor. A series of coils and heavy magnets connected to the neutronic engine via an oddly arranged group of electrodes (metal not yet identified) appears to be the motive force. One small motor was examined. It is encased in a pure aluminum capsule directly underneath the main engine compartment. There is a small exhaust aperture that has what can by (sic) only described as an helicoid mechanism ?????????????????????????? the auxiliary motor may be articulated.
Navigation and engine controls may be activated by tactile manipulation. Viewing may have been achieved by some form of television imagery. Symbolic notation appears to be in the form for flight and control indicators. Flat panels of unknown metal has (sic) been suggested as a device associated with the operation of the aerodyne was discovered and analyzed. Its mode of operation and purpose is unknown.
The absence of provisions, berthing compartments and storage areas suggest the notion that this craft may be a short range reconnaissance platform. The only recognizable features examined were five hand ??????? with arm rests fashioned for vertical and horizontal flight. A leaf book of ????...
And here, almost an entire page of the document is blacked out, i.e. approximately two double-spaced typewritten pages. The document then continues:
Mode of operation is believed to be instrumentation and suggests that the aerodyne from reconstruction of available wreckage t??????'.'" biosensory and optical stimuli for these reasons:
a. Absence of indicator lights;
b. Absence of linear dials, or moving pointers;
c. Absence of counters;
d. Absence of scopes;
e. No mechanical signal indicators.
There were no identifiable control types found among the assortment of artifacts that would indicate the operation of the propulsion unit was manually activated: no knobs, push-buttons, toggle switches, levels, balls, handwheels, handcranks, or foot-pedals were observed in interior space of the flight cabin.
The apparent lack of additional clothing and equipment reinforces the belief that the occupants were engaged in a purely exploratory flight.
It is not presently known if electromagnetic radiation effects from the power plant had contributed to pilot error or death before impact. If inadequate shielding was the primary cause of pilot error, ???7?????????s detected....
17. A very tentative working theory was expressed by the scientific members of the inspection team that pilot-aerodyne interaction may occur via electronic-non word symbols perceived through the tactile manipulation of the fingers, feeding impulses to the brain and vice versa. All of which may suggest a non-inert quality of the materials existent as being a product of artificial intelligence.
18. The following elements were analyzed and found to exist in the small neutronic power plant that was found inside ULAT-1:
a. UF6 in metallic form;
b. Hydrogen-fluoride gas;
c. Water and uranium tetrafluoride;
d. Powdered magnesium and potassium chlorate;
e. Metal similar to lead with a chocolate brown color;
f. U-235 in metallic form;
g. Plastic like material similar to NE 102;
i. Pure aluminum;
h. Thorium isotope material;
j. plutonium powder. [ Note that the ordering here is that of the original document. As the Drs. Wood suggest, this flaw argues strongly for the document's authenticity.]
Scientists from Los Alamos and Sandia Base were alarmed that the power plant could possibly function as a bomb if the elements described above were processed in similar fashion as was done for the lens and shotgun detonators. [The lens detonator refers to the implosion device used in plutonium based atom bombs to compress the critical mass. The device was described in part one. The shotgun detonator refers to the critical mass assembly mechanism in uranium-235 based atom bombs.]
The only evidence of circuitry found on the motor was thin plastic-like sheets fashioned like platters embossed on the exterior of the spherically-shaped casing coated by a thin film of pure silver. Under high power magnification it was observed a series (sic) of fine grid-like lines intersecting groups of dots arranged in circular patterns.
PART III SCIENTIFIC PROBABILITIES
Based on all available evidence collected from recovered exhibits currently under study by AMC, AFSWP, NEPA, AEC, ONR, NACA, JRDB, RAND, USAAF, SAG, and MIT, are deemed extraterrestrial in nature. This conclusion was reached as a result of comparisons of artifacts from the Missouri discovery in 1941. The technology is outside the scope of us science, even that of German rocket and aircraft development.
Interplanetary space travel is possible provided adequate funding, necessary resources are made available, and national interest is piqued.
Human origins may not be constrained to one planet. Our genus may be found among solar systems similar to our own.
The laws of physics and genetics may have a genesis in a higher, structured order that once (sic) previously thought.
We are now in a position to summarize once again the two data-sets - the ET data set and the terrestrial-origins data-set - and the internal contradictions these present in the document.
We begin with the conclusion the document reaches after the lengthy summary of the technical data: "Based on all available evidence collected from recovered exhibits currently under study by AMC (etc.)...are deemed extraterrestrial in nature." Note then what has happened within the same document. What began as an open-ended discussion, with either the terrestrial or extraterrestrial explanations being left more or less an open question in Part I of the document, quickly becomes a definitive conclusion in favor of the ET hypothesis by Part III, after Part II mentioned that "rarely observed something" as being evidence for an ET origin of the recovered bodies. Thus, what is otherwise an extraordinary but nevertheless terrestrially explainable list of technical components in Part III becomes deftly reinterpreted within the ET paradigm that formed the transition from Part I to Part III.
It is to be admitted that some of the technical descriptions found in Part III would baffle most engineers of 2004, not to mention those of 1947: "there were no visible signs of plate-stiffeners. There were no fasteners, weld(sic), rivets, or fittings holding the fuselage together." Another unusual technological feature that, in 1947 at least, would have argued strongly for an ET origin of the craft was the apparent biological-mechanical "interface" between pilot/crew and the craft that allowed immediate brain-craft control interaction, and which would have accounted for the apparent lack of normal control surfaces that was noted in he report: "symbolic notation appears to be the form for flight and control indicators. Flat panels of unknown metal has (sic) been suggested," and so on.
While this type of biometric technology is now known - and employed - by today's western military forces, it was only a science fiction dream in 1947. This fact led Colonel Corso, for example, to reveal that such technology was gradually "seeded" into American industry once its principles of operation were known. Finally, the most exact description of an advanced technology in apparent advance of 1947 American capabilities is found at the very end of Part II, with its description of thin plastic sheets coating by a film of silver on which was inscribed a fine grid like pattern of lines, circles and intersecting patterns. What is described here sounds very much like a 1947 description of an integrated circuit.
But what is remarkable is the conclusion drawn from all this technical detail: "Interplanetary space travel is possible...." This is the conclusion reached by analysis of all the preceding extensive technological summary. Yet, the document's own stated "observed characteristic" - speeds of a mere 1,200 MPH - do not support this conclusion at all, as was previously noted. One is in the presence, in other words, of two very different data-sets, even where the technology is concerned.
However, it is equally crucial to observe that all other technological data points can be explained by reference to specific achievements of the Nazi secret weapons research. We will now consider these in detail. The metal of the craft, we are initially told, is some white-colored iron-based metal having the characteristics of high grade steel that was "cold-formed and heat treated." The process of forming and molding high tensile steel was in fact called "cold extrusion" and it was a technology that the Germans had perfected during the war. Moreover, the document also notes that the "lack of wings, flaps, stabilizers, and surface control features suggests that the craft is a lifting body," a design principle well in keeping with the most advanced German wartime research into discoid aerodynes.
A further connection to known Nazi research interests is found in paragraph two: "The low profile ratio of 6-to-l gives the aerodyne a great advantage in overcoming the restrictions of the boundary layer effect..." The boundary layer formed an early focal point of secret German research undertaken even before the beginning of the World War.
But now the internal contradictions in the document become stark and acute. For example, there is a curious juxtaposition and contradiction between paragraphs seven and eight. Paragraph seven states that "there are no identifiable electronics (wiring, ignition...etc)," and yet, in the very next paragraph, we are informed that, in the arrangement of technologies in the "neutronic engine" there are "a series of coils and heavy magnets connected to the neutronic engine via an oddly arranged group of electrodes (metal not yet identified)." Coils and magnets certainly constitute "identifiable electronics," so what is apparently really in view is the "oddly arranged group of electrodes," suggesting that it is not the technology as such that is unusual, but its design and arrangement and combinations. And the description of this odd arrangement and spherical electronics sounds suspiciously like Hans Coler's "coils" and the Shappeller devices. So here too, the document seems to point not so much to something extraterrestrial, but to something that, while exotic, was very terrestrial, and uniquely German. It is perhaps even significant that the document mentions a design feature e encountered in the turbines and rotational devices of Viktor Schauberger: a "helicoid mechanism."
One would expect from such advanced "extraterrestrial" technology such as this at least some sort of solid state electronics and better speeds than a paltry 1,200 MPH and an engine constructed of coils and magnets "oddly arranged." Then there is, from the terrestrial origins point of view another giveaway: "The absence of provisions, berthing compartments and storage areas suggest that this craft may be a short range reconnaissance platform." Certainly this statement could be made to fit with an "ET" explanation, but it is equally true that is more appropriate to a terrestrial origins interpretation.
Finally, the oddest mention in the whole of the document's Part II: a "leaf book" whose contents are apparently so sensitive that no part of the presumed summary of is contents is leaked. The entire description is blacked out. This is extremely interesting, and another point of internal contradiction, for in the light of the description of integrated circuitry encountered above and any culture possessing it, digital data storage is possible. Surely an advanced extraterrestrial culture with interplanetary travel capability would have a more advanced technology for data storage than a book. Yet there is no mention in the whole document of anything that resembles digital data storage systems. There are no cassette tapes, no compact disks, no nothing. This is not to say that ET would not have, nor read, books. After all, we posses both technologies, and continue to use both. But in any case, it cannot be denied: a book is a totally terrestrial, and well-known, and old technology.
Perhaps the most interesting technical descriptions, however, are to be found in those portions describing the "neutronic engine." Eleven components are described:
(1) UF6 (i..e, uranium hexafluoride) in metallic form;
(2) Hydrogen-fluoride gas;
(3) "water" and uranium tetrafluoride;
(4) powdered magnesium and potassium chlorate;
(5) a "metal similar to lead with a chocolate brown color";
(6) U-235 in metallic form;
(7) a plastic like material similar to (DuPont's) NE 102
(9) pure aluminum;
(10) "thorium isotope material";
(11) plutonium powder.
There are a number of very odd features about this list.
First note that nine of the eleven components of the "neutronic engine" describe wholly terrestrial - though for 1947 - still very advanced technologies.
Second, note that the document states clearly that these elements "were analyzed and found to exist in the small neutronic power plant". So the elements were subjected to chemical and presumably other types of analysis, such as spectroscopy. One may even speculate where they were analyzed: close by in the Los Alamos laboratories, one of the few facilities in the country at that time, and certainly the only one in New Mexico, capable of handling and analyzing such exotic and radioactive material.
It is in this context that the third odd feature becomes evident, for the isotopic form of uranium - U-235 - is clearly specified, suggesting that the necessary technique of analysis employed was precisely spectroscopy, since chemical analysis cannot separate-isotopes of the same element. We may also assume that this analysis indicated a high degree of purity, since one of the concerns of the scientists involved was precisely that the uranium could be used for a bomb, which means that it was of weapons grade purity. And we may likewise safely assume that the plutonium present was Pu-240 the stable plutonium isotope. [Another factor now should be noticed. The presence of these two elements without any mention of proper shielding indicates a serious technical flaw in the document, notwithstanding its external indicators of authenticity.]
With this in mind, a question immediately presents itself: Why is there an ambiguity when it comes to "thorium isotope material?" Was this because it was an unknown isotope? Unlikely, since precision is indicated in the case of the uranium, and implied in the case of the plutonium. Was it therefore not specified for some other reason? We will never know.
This leads to yet another oddity. There is a peculiar blend evident throughout this list of very precise, and very ambiguous, descriptions that, given the importance of the subject matter, should not be glossed over. It may be the case that there was not sufficient time to test and analyze everything precisely, but surely the presence of "thorium isotope material" merited further precision. In this respect, note once again that uranium tetrafluoride and uranium hexafluoride are both precisely indicated, but again, with an imprecision: what was the isotopic form? This ambiguity is perhaps most evident in the mention of "water," for one is left to guess whether this is ordinary water, or heavily deuterized or tritiumized heavy water. This imprecision occurs in the same context where earlier precision is the order of the day, for in paragraph eight, "heavy water" and "deuterium" are mentioned as the "primary ignitor" of the neutronic engine.
In any case, these nine out of the eleven components are all known terrestrial technology, and given what has been covered in this book previously, well within known German and American capabilities, and, for that time, only within German or American capabilities. In other words, if these are indicators pointing to a terrestrial origin for the craft, then the only other possible place it can point to besides the United States, is the Nazi secret weapons project and its possible post-war offshoots. This may be the reason why, then, when the two data-sets come into conflict at various points in the document, the ambiguity is obfuscated in favor of an extraterrestrial hypothesis of the craft's origin.
One final note before proceeding with the examination of other documents from the Cooper-Cantwheel Majic-12 series of paper; the mention of water and uranium tetrafluoride sggests the remote possibility that a highly radioactive solution was being employed, presumably to manipulate neutron emission in conjunction with the hydrodynamic properties of fluids. This manipulation of radioactivity, field effects, and hydrodynamic properties - exotic by even today's standards - was also, as was seen, one apparent principle behind the operation of Kammler's "Bell". Thus, even in its descriptions of the most arcane aspects of the craft, the indications point clearly to Germany.
While all these points constitute to my mind a very strong set of data points coupling the Roswell craft to the secret weapons research of Nazi Germany and therefore to a possible terrestrial origin of "ULAT-1", the document concludes with two very suggestive, and for that day, advanced and revolutionary concepts that favor the "ET" explanation. First, it states clearly that "Human origins may not be constrained to one planet. Our genus may be found among solar systems similar to our own." The only possible foundations for this astonishing conclusion would appear to be the autopsies purportedly done on the recovered bodies, but also perhaps based upon analysis of the contents of the "leaf book" discovered in the craft. But then an even more extraordinary comment follows: "The laws of physics and genetics may have a genesis in a higher structured order that (sic) once previously thought."
In 1947 physics was well on the path toward the grand theoretical constructs of the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, having already seen the higher dimensional theories of Kaluza-Klein and other theories attempting such "higher structured orders." But genetics and biology in general had then no similarly grand and formally explicit conclusions beyond the theory of evolution, which was a long way from maintaining the grand physics-biology union in a higher structured order manifest in the statement. Watson and Crick had yet to announce their discoveries, and Soviet physicists were still decades away from their astonishing work in the physics of living systems and consciousness. So apparently something in that "leaf book" convinced the study group, during the short period from the crash in July to September of 1947 when the report was actually completed, that there was a grander union of physics and biology than anyone could scarcely have imagined.
So what can be concluded from this one document? I think it is safe to say, that taken as a whole, with both data-sets viewed together, that it tends to favor neither the ET explanation nor the terrestrial origins explanation. However, when viewed separately, the biological information certainly tends to favor the ET origins hypothesis, and the technological information a terrestrial - and German - one. If one then places these two facts within the wider context of other events of 1947, and recalls also the fact that the German Paperclip scientists were brought in because what was recovered "looked all too familiar," then in that broad context the document seems to favor the terrestrial hypothesis. And as we have argued, that points clearly to America or Germany as the only two logical places such technology could have originated.
On this speculative reading of the document, it seems clear then that the apparent contradictions are either deliberately created, or at the minimum, obfuscated in favor of the ET explanation. The cover-up has already begun. Can this type of analysis be sustained on technological information contained in the other great summary of data, the "Air Accident Report" by General Nathan Twining? Indeed it can.
2. The 116 July 1947 Air Accident Report by General Nathan Twining to Headquarters:
This document constitutes the next focus of technological interest, for it is General Nathan Twining's report to the Air Material Command (AMC) at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio. Officially titled "Air Accident Report on 'Flying Disc' aircraft near the White Sands Proving Ground, New Mexico," this report is of singular importance, as it contains the first on-site technology descriptions and assessments. In other words, these descriptions occur before the preliminary review of this September report we have just finished examining. Again, the main body of the report is cited almost in full:
As ordered by Presidential directive, dated 9 July 1947, a preliminary investigation of a recovered "Flying Disc" and remains of a possible second disc, was conducted by the senior staff of this command. The data furnished in this report was provided by the engineering staff personnel of T-2 and aircraft laboratory, Engineering Division T-3. Additional data was supplied by the scientific personnel of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CIT and the Army Air Forces Scientific Advisory Group, headed by Dr. Theodore von Karman. Further analysis was conducted by personnel from Research and Development.
It is the collective view of this investigative body, that the aircraft recovered by the Army and Air Force units near Victorio Peak and Socorro, New Mexico, are not of us manufacture for the following reasons:
a. The circular disc-shaped "planform" design does not resemble any design currently under development by this command nor of any Navy project.
b. The lack of any external propulsion system, power plant, intake, exhaust either for propeller or jet propulsion, warrants this view.
c. The inability of the German scientists from Fort Bliss and White Sands Proving Ground to make a positive identification of a secret German V weapon out of these discs. Though the possibility that the Russians have managed to develop such a craft, remains. The lack of any markings, ID numbers or instructions in Cyrillic, has placed serious doubt in the minds of many, that the objects recovered are not of Russian manufacture either.
d. Upon examination of the interior of the craft, a compartment exhibiting a possible atomic engine was discovered. At least this is the opinion of Dr. Oppenheimer (sic) and Dr. von Karman. A possibility exists that part of the craft itself comprises the propulsion system, thus allowing the reactor to function as a heat exchanger and permitting the storage of energy into a substance for later use. This may allow the converting of mass into energy, unlike the release of energy of our atomic bombs. The description of the power room is as follows:
A doughnut shaped tube approximately thirty-five feet in diameter, made of what appears to be a plastic material, surrounding a central core (see sketch in Tab 1) This tube was translucent, approximately one inch this (sic), The tube appeared to be filled with a large rod centered inside the tube, was wrapped in a coil of what appears to be copper material, ran through the circumference of the tube. This may be the reactor control mechanism or a storage battery. There were no moving parts decernable (sic) within the power room nor in MISSING LINE HERE.
(2) This activation of a electrical (sic) potential is believed to be the primary power to the reactor, though it is only a theory at present. Just how a heavy water reactor functions in this environment is unknown.
(3) Underneath the power plant, was discovered a ball-turret, approximately ten feet in diameter. This turret was encompassed by a series of gears that has a unusual (sic) ratio not known by any of our engineers. On the underside of the turret were four circular cavities, coated with some smooth material not identified. These cavities are symetrical (sic) but seem to be movable. Just how is not known. The movement of the turret coincides with the dome-shaped copula compartment above the power room. It is believed that the main propulsion system is a Modeless turbine, similar to current development now underway at AMC and the Mogul Project. A possible theory was devised by Dr. August Steinhof, [a Paperclip scientist ], Dr. Wernher von Braun (sic) and Dr. Theodore von Karman as the craft moves through the air, it somehow draws the oxygen from the atmosphere and by a (sic, et passim) induction process, generates a atomic fusion reaction (see TAB 2). The air outside the craft would thus be ionized, thus propelling the craft forward. Coupled with the circular air foil for lift, the craft would presumably have an unlimited range and air speed This may account for the reported absence of any noise and the apparent blue flame often associated with rapid acceleration.
(4) On the Deck of the power room there are what resembles typewriter keys, possibly reactor/powerplant controls. There were no conventional electronics not (sic) wiring to be seen connecting these controls to the propulsion turret.
e. There is a flight deck located inside the copula section. It is round and domed at the top. The absence of canopy, observation windows/blisters, or any optical projection, lends support to the opinion that this craft is either guided by remote viewing or is remotely controlled.
(1) A semi-circular photo-tube array (possibly television).
(2) Crew compartments were hermetically sealed via a solidification process.
(3) No weld marks, rivets or soldered joints.
(4) Craft components appear to be molded and pressed into perfect fit.
There are a number of very similar, and strikingly dissimilar features between this earlier document and the later September "White Hot Intelligence Estimate."
First, it is to be noted that in this very first report there is no mention whatsoever of the extraterrestrial hypothesis as an explanation of the origin of the craft. Perhaps this is explained by the relatively brief time that had elapsed since the crash and the composition of the report, but it is unlikely for a very important reason. The report clearly states that the "German scientists from Fort Bliss and White Sands Proving Ground" were unable "to make a positive identification of a secret German V weapon" from the discs. This means that the question of origin was in view from the outset, and yet there is no mention of an extraterrestrial hypothesis. This reinforces our previous analysis of the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate", for if the craft was suspected of being extraterrestrial technology from the very beginning, brimming full of ultra-advanced ET technology, then it is very unlikely that the German rocket scientists would have been privy to the discovery at all, given the heavy American compartmentalization of secret research. In other words, to put the point once again, something about the craft immediately suggested a terrestrial and German provenance. By a similar line of reasoning, the German rocket scientists were not able to identify it as any German V-weapon. But this may be obfuscation of a sort, for as Corso has indicated, the Germans clearly told General Twining something that did not make it into either of his reports.
Second, unlike the later "White Hot Intelligence Estimate", the element of "mystification" on the part of the investigators is relatively lacking in this initial report. This may obviously be due to the fact that the craft has not yet been more fully analyzed. Yet, the report itself provides an amount of detail that belies this explanation, for it was apparently known in sufficient detail for von Braun and von Karman - who were unable to identify the craft - to suggest a very radical form of propulsion via a charge differential, a fact that suggests that while they may not have been able to identify it, they at least may have had their strong suspicions.
Third, the strangely and almost single-mindedly "terrestrial" nature of the technology described should be clearly obvious: a simple plastic tube, approximately an inch in diameter, filled with a substance that is apparently water, in the center of which is a rod wrapped with a coil of "what appears to be... copper material." Moreover, apparently enough examination or analysis and speculation had been done for the investigators to conclude that the doughnut reactor was somehow a "heavy water" reactor, and that the German scientists are already thinking in terms of a fusion rather than a fission reactor. This is perhaps significant, for the equipment described, in the context of fusion, suggests the same apparatus set up, in some respects, as the process later known as cold fusion.
Fourth, it is to be noted that the craft is described in similar terms to those in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" in the fact that it has "no weld marks, rivets or soldered joints.
But this similarity highlights the fifth point, and a significant new difficulty. In the previously examined "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," a certain emphasis was placed by that report on the apparent lack of conventional means of control: push-buttons, knobs, toggle switches, and so on. "Biosensory" control was posited, and these two facts supported an extraterrestrial explanation of the craft's origin. Moreover, the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," it will bee recalled, emphasized the absence of crew quarters, which it will be recalled, suggested a short range reconnaissance platform. However, here in his very first report, Twining states that "crew compartments were hermetically sealed: and that the means of visual steering of the craft was (suggestively) by "remote viewing," followed immediately by mention of "a semi-circular photo-tube array (possibly television)." [It should be noted, however, that the White Hot Intelligence Estimate stresses this lack in connection with the propulsion system, and not the control system, of the craft. It does mention television as a possibility for visual control and coordination of the craft, yet fails to mention the "photo-tube array" of the Air Accident Report. ] Thus, either this very first report is describing a different craft than that described in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," or a very deliberate change has been made by the time of the latter's composition, which does not mention a "photo-tube array" at all, but stresses rather the complete lack of any such conventional technologies such as vacuum tubes.
That von Braun and von Karman are clearly thinking along cold fusion lines is evident from the fact that a mere plastic tube, much less the presumed heavy water within it, would have been blasted away in millionths of a second by the extreme heat present at the initiation of any hot fusion reaction.
And finally, the sixth point. In the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," emphasis is placed on the lack of control features inside the craft. Yet, in the "Air Accident Report," a very conventional, very terrestrial set of "what resembles typewriter keys, possibly reactor/powerplant controls" were found. These very terrestrial sounding "typewriter keys" are not the only piece of hardware that do not sound like ultra-advanced solid state ET technology, for perhaps the most perplexing aspect of the "Air Accident Report's" power plant description is the fact that the "ball-turret" component of the assembly was "encompassed by a series of gears that has an unusual ratio not known by any of our engineers."
Gears!!?? Does this advanced ET heavy water doughnut cold fusion reactor with typewriter keys come with automatic, or just standard?
For the reader who has been paying attention, however, the description of the craft in the "Air Accident Report," as distinct from that in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," sounds very similar to descriptions of the various advanced technologies the Nazis were trying to perfect. And the clincher is the "bladeless turbine," that was apparently under development at the Air Materials Command and in the Mogul Project. Viktor Schauberger's "Repulsine" saucer, developed for the Nazis, involved just such a bladeless turbine.
Taken on its own then, the "Air Accident Report" has little in it to suggest an extraterrestrial explanation, and a great deal in it that sounds all too uncomfortably like the secret research of the Kammlerstab. Notably, once again one senses that "conventional" though still highly advanced technologies were not the most unusual feature of the craft to catch the investigators' attention. The unusual aspect that commanded it was rather their unusual and sophisticated combination: doughnut heavy water fusion reactors with gears and ball-turrets.
Taken together, these two documents begin to suggest that a "story" is beginning to take shape in the secret counsels of what will become the Majic-12 group.
First, the German Paperclip scientists were brought in, most likely because something about the craft - this very same feature of unusual combinations of technologies - suggested to the high American brass a very terrestrial, very German, origin. Second, while the technologies and their unusual combinations of them suggested by these two documents are not sufficiently advanced to argue persuasively for the ET explanation, they are sufficiently advanced enough to conclude that they constituted a significant national security threat and issue. Somebody, somewhere, must have appeared to the high American brass-in-the-know, and we can only assume that General Twining was one such general officer, that someone somewhere was continuing, independently, the lines of research begun by the Kammlerstab. This required in turn a new intelligence and research-development agency with the highest security classification and direct responsibility to the President. In short, there was an independently surviving Nazi research black project, and if the Roswell crashed vehicle(s) gave sufficient evidence of this fact, then the shock waves this must have sent through the corridors of power in the Pentagon must have been unimaginable. All the better then to cloak the sensational discovery in a multi-layered disinformation operation, to conceal it, as Nick Cook suggested, behind the ET Myth.
But there is another hypothesis that is also suggested by the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate", and that is that very possibly the truth was a combination of the two, that the first crash and recovery took place in Europe, and became the basis of a massive and very secret Nazi black projects effort to back engineer it. As we shall see at the end of this chapter, there is surprising confirmation of this idea from a little suspected source, a source often overlooked in histories of the Second World War and its rapid technological advancements. We will return to further development of this scenario in connection with the Nazi UFO Legend after we have examined the third document dealing with the technological aspects of the Roswell incident. This is
3. The Fall 1952 Majestic Twelve Project First Annual Report:
This report should be viewed in conjunction with the two reports just examined, for it is the considered and calm review, now some five years form the event, of the highest levels of the agency established as a result of the Roswell Incident. As such, its descriptions of the recovered technology are of crucial significance, for by comparison one can ascertain the progress, or lack thereof, made in the intervening years in analyzing the recovered technologies. Moreover, one can analyze the progress, or lack thereof, of the ET interpretation first tentatively suggested in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate."
At the outset, The "First Annual Report" clearly rules out a terrestrial explanation almost from the very beginning of the document: "All efforts have been made to identify the country or private concern (which) could have the technical and financial resources necessary to produce such a long-range flight. So far, no country on this earth has the means and the security of its resources to produce such." The chronological progression of the ET hypothesis, from no mention in the "Air Accident Report," to an initially tentative and later stronger mention in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," has now ended with the ET hypothesis alone being the considered view of the group.
The signal question to be addressed in the examination of this document is whether or not the evidence it cites sufficiently supports and compels to that conclusion. Or does it too fall into the pattern of internal conflicts of data-sets evidenced in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," presenting evidence that may have more terrestrial, and for that very reason, more sensational and extraordinary implications?
Preceding to the first piece of evidence advanced in favor of its chosen extraterrestrial explanation, the "First Annual Report" like the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" before it clearly indicates that the recovered bodies are the strongest evidence in favor of that explanation: "The occupants of these planform vehicles are, in most respects, human or human-like. Autopsies, so far indicate, that these being (sic) share the same biological needs as humans." It is to be noted that this is the first piece of evidence presented in the document, and thus to the MJ-12 group, it has already eclipsed in importance the significant technological recoveries.
But then in the very next section, two rather disturbing pieces of information are presented in very succinct fashion, without undo fanfare or preparation in the body of the document preceding them: "MAJESTIC SS&P," we are informed, "are currently focused on Psy-Op development for Cold War (counter-intelligence) activities." Then in the very next sentence comes a stunning admission: "Utilization of Paperclip specialists has yielded valuable results in new weapons research in areas of flight dynamics, biological and chemical agents, mind control, and intelligence gathering techniques."
Ponder what has now been admitted: Majestic-12, allegedly established as a super-secret research, development, and intelligence agency, is already engaged - almost Ahnenerbe style - in psychological operations, employing Nazi scientists and "specialists" in new weapons development, including "mind control" and "intelligence gathering techniques." What has any of this to do with back-engineering alien flying saucers(whether terrestrial or extraterrestrial), unless a psychological warfare operation was considered to be essential for counter-intelligence purposes? Was the "ET" explanation being advanced as an integral component of that operation? The beginning of this agenda was already beginning to make its presence felt as early as the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," but there is not the slightest hint of it in the "Air Accident Report."
And now another curious feature should be evident. The "Air Accident Report" nowhere mentions any recovered bodies, extraterrestrial or otherwise, certainly a curious omission if in fact there were such bodies present at one of the crash sites. Or was the problem simply that they were the wrong kind of bodies?
A lengthy section of the document then follows outlining in detail the various areas for long-range technological exploitation and development, ranging provocatively enough from "retro-viruses" and other biological warfare and pharmaceutical development, to miniaturization of "atomic bomb components" and "aircraft and missile design," to "new machining techniques...for high-temperature alloys and titanium" for "space exploration and hypersonic dynamics." Clearly by the time of this "First Annual Report" a great deal of research has already been done. But the resemblance with the broad mission brief and portfolio of Kammler's think tank is readily apparent, doubtless because of the presence of the Paperclip "specialists" within the organization, for in five short years, what began as a "modest" back-engineering and technology recovery black project has ballooned into a mega-bureaucracy coordinating almost all broad areas of American black projects secret weapons research. Minus the death camps, of course, Majic-12 is almost the mirror image of the Kammlerstab. Is it the presence of Nazis, working in the deepest recesses of these black projects, that explains the us military's experimentation on Black American and other minority us citizens and solders, groups that such Nazis considered to be racially inferior? It is a profound moral question that cannot be pondered too long.
In any case, the document indicates that the propulsion technology of the craft is a major focus of effort:
The AEC and NEPA are currently conducting research for advanced technologies in atomic engines and radical propulsion studies. Systems studies at Los Alamos, N.M., Oak Ridge, Tenn., and at Langley, Va., are attempting to duplicate the water drive and plastic core elements found on the engine being kept at HAFB. Integration (Sic) of hydrogen base fuels and electro-hydrodynamic technology, may open up for us development of super-aerodynes with Mach 5 capabilities.
The document then notes that the intention of the "visitors" does not appear to be conquest, since it would be easily within "their" capabilities if "they" chose to do so.
Placing the whole project and its associated agencies at a level of classification higher than "that of the H-Bomb development,"
The "First Annual Report" then provides a rationale for its policy of strict denial of Roswell and similar types of events, predicting collapse of cultural confidence in familiar institutions such as science and religion. So far, so good for the ET explanation.
But then at this juncture the technological "Annexes" are appended, the first of which, Annex A, contains information on the recovered craft and their occupants.
The Panel's review of the AEC and AFSWP investigation of Site L-1 and he Air Force Site L-2, has led the Panel to conclude that the objects under study, are the result of a high altitude ejection of a escape (sic) cylinder from a fatal mid-air collision of two unidentified circular planform aircraft of interplanetary nature.
Of particular interest to the Panel was site L-2, located at Lat 33-40-31, Long 106-28-29, as this site yielded the most material for analysis.
Site L-2 may be closely associated with Site L-l, and debris pattern suggests that the craft hit the ground at a sharp angle and continued to remain airborne until coming to rest at site L-2.
The craft found at Site L-2, is either the remains of a rocket-plane, or a powered glider. What remained of the power plant was examined and determined to be of a magnetic drive propulsion powered by a fusion reactor of sorts.
Lack of wiring, fuel systems, cables, motors, hydraulics, intakes, exhaust, and surface controls, strongly suggests that the craft was designed to travel outside of our atmosphere.
The second craft that impacted at Site L-3, provided very little evidence that it too was similar in design, as the impact was vertical in nature and at very high speed. It is believed that the debris discovered on 2 July 1947, by a local rancher was the result of a mid-air collision with an X-plane from HAFB; another unidentified object; or possibly collided with both. Radar film and tower logs do not explain the merging three radar targets prior to collision and subsequent crashes. There were - five recovered bodies, two of which were found in a severely damaged escape cylinder, and the remaining three were found some distance away from the cylinder. All five appeared to have suffered from sudden decompression and heat suffication (sic) (recovery and autopsies of the occupants are covered in detail in a separate study GRAY SUIT within Projects 612 and 621, ULATT EXPLOITATION-MAJESTIC SERIES 4, P. 40-102), as a result of damage sustained from unknown causes.
The Panel was concerned over the contamination of several SED personnel upon coming in contact with debris near the power plant. One technician was overcomed and collapsed (sic) when he attempted the removal of a body. Another medical technician went into a coma four hours after placing a body in a rubber body-bag. All four were rushed to Los Alamos for observation. All four later died of seizures and profuse bleeding. All four were wearing protective suits when they came into contact with body fluids from the occupants.
Autopsies on the four dead SED technicians are not conclusive. It is believed that the four may have suffered from some form of toxin or a highly contagious desease (sic). Tissue samples are currently being kept at Fort Detrick, Md.
The panel was also concerned with the detection of airborne monitor flights over the Site L-2. Radiation readings indicate a high neutron count was recorded as the plane flew over the site. Neutron count dropped off as the plane flew a considerable distance from the site. A report has been filed with the USAIDS. Detection of a high altitude explosion was recorded by a Project MOGUL constant level ballon on 4 July 1947. Radar from White Sands Proving Ground and HAFB also detected a surge.
Parachute recovery team from HAFB were dispatched to Site L-2. Upon arrival, the team, realizing the nature of the crash, radioed instructions and marked the crash site for the investigators that arrived later.
In the opinion of the senior AEC medical officer, current medical equipment and supplies are wholly inadequate in dealing with a large scale outbreak of alien virus.
Facilities at Los Alamos and Mayo clinics were considered as lacking in the current climate.
On 26 Sptember 1947, the first meeting of the NSC-1 was held to discuss the Now Mexico incidents and how to implement the policy established by MJ-12 SS&P.
What emerges from this annex is actually very little new technical data, but the lingering sense of ambiguity that hovered over the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" is resolved by the new information that there were two, possibly more, craft involved, one of which was a powered "glider".
Note again that the strongest evidence presented for the extraterrestrial hypothesis in the document is the recovery of bodies and their apparently quite toxic effects on humans. This scenario is not far-fetched, for similar results attended the first contact between Europeans and American Indians, whose respective systems had built up different immunities.
Finally, note the strange transformation of Project MOGUL from a program apparently initially involving bladeless turbines, to a project involving the launching of constant altitude balloons to monitor Soviet nuclear tests!
So what can one make of all three documents together? As we have already observed, there is a curious progression, from the initial "Air Accident Report", in which an extraterrestrial explanation is not even mentioned, to the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," in which both options are left open initially, but in which the ET hypothesis becomes the privileged model of interpretation, to the "First Annual Report", where only the ET hypothesis is seriously entertained.
This highlights a possible scenario of what happened.
Let us first consider what happened at the Roswell incident along the ET paradigm. This paradigm and interpretation have gained such status within the UFO community that, extraordinary as it is, it now seems almost commonplace. Unusual debris of some strange material is discovered by a local rancher in a field. Bodies are found and autopsied. They are small and human-like and cause the deaths of some of the medical personnel who first handled them. A propulsion unit is found that is highly advanced. The story goes out on the newspaper wire: the army has recovered a crashed flying saucer, while at the same time General Twining is issuing his "Air Accident Report" in which no mention is made of the ET hypothesis at all. Witnesses are interviewed and the public reaches a conclusion: We have been visited by ET. And this is indeed a plausible scenario that fits some of the facts alleged in the reports on the incident.
But there are considerable technological problems with this interpretation. If the crashed vehicles were even suspected of being of ET origin, then why call in the German Paperclip scientists, and then keep them in the loop long after the ET hypothesis has become the official though top secret explanation? It is far more likely that they were consulted because some at a very high level in the US military had seen this technology before. In fact, if it was a German saucer or some later development, "alien" in the sense of foreign but terrestrial, then the military’s alarm becomes paradoxically more understandable.
The "Air Accident Report" has little in it to suggest an extraterrestrial explanation, and a great deal in it that sounds all too uncomfortably like the secret research of the Kammlerstab. Notably, one senses that "conventional" though still highly advanced technologies were not the most unusual feature of the craft to catch the investigators' attention. The unusual aspect that commanded it was rather their unusual and sophisticated combination: doughnut heavy water fusion reactors with gears and ball-turrets.
The German Paperclip scientists were brought in, most likely because something about the craft - this very same feature of unusual combinations of technologies - suggested to the high American brass a very terrestrial, very German, origin. Second, while the technologies and their unusual combinations are not sufficiently advanced to argue persuasively for the ET explanation, they are sufficiently advanced enough to conclude that they constituted a significant national security threat and issue. Somebody, somewhere, must have appeared to the high American brass-in-the-know, and we can only assume that General Twining was one such general officer, that someone somewhere was continuing, independently, the lines of research begun by the Kammlerstab. This required in turn a new intelligence and research-development agency with the highest security classification and direct responsibility to the President. In short, //there was an independently surviving Nazi research black project, and if the Roswell crashed vehicle(s) gave sufficient evidence of this fact, then the shock waves this must have sent through the corridors of power in the Pentagon must have been unimaginable. All the better then to cloak the sensational discovery in a multi-layered disinformation operation, to conceal it, as Nick Cook suggested, behind the ET Myth.
In 1947 the war was already two years over. Yet, here was a crashed vehicle with all the signatures one came to recognize from Kammler's advanced research projects. Where did it come from? A cover-up on this view would have been as necessary, if not much more so, from the military's point of view as on the view that it was a crashed ET vehicle. In this event, the strangeness of the recovered technology would have suggested a plausible foundation for a deep layer of disinformation planted in the reports themselves, to be disseminated when weather balloons and monkey bodies were no longer capable of holding back the ET flood. There would have been no records of such an understanding, it would have been arrived at in oral discussions, and "worked into" the otherwise reliable information contained in its classified reports.
In this respect, it is perhaps significant that some contemporary observers of the American space program and its odd thirty-year long "holding pattern" and tapestry of inconsistencies, lies, and obfuscations have long suspected that there are indeed two space programs inside the us government, the "public NASA one, and a quasi-independent one based deep within covert and black projects. In 1970, a curious document based upon the Garrison Investigation's voluminous files, called the "Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal", otherwise known as the Torbitt document, was circulated, alleging a connection between this secret space program and the murder of President John F. Kennedy. Radio talk show conspiracy theorist Mae Brussel concurred: the secret space program was being run inside and quasi-independently of the public NASA program, and both were being coordinated by Wernher von Braun.
In this connection it is perhaps informative that the last document in the Cantwheel Majestic-12 documents is a Top Secert memo from November 12m, 1963, - a scant ten days before the assassination - from President Kennedy to the Director of Counter Intelligence of the Central Intelligence Agency:
SUBJECT: Classification review of all UFO intelligence files affecting National Security. As I had discussed with you previously, I have initiated ???????? and have instructed James Webb to develop a program with the Soviet Union in joint space and lunar exploration. It would be very helpful if you would have the high threat cases reviewed with the purpose of identification of bona fide as opposed to classified CIA and USAF sources. It is important that we make a clear distinction between the knowns and the unknowns in the event the Soviets try to mistake our extended cooperation as a cover for intelligence gathering of their defense (sic) and space programs. When this data has been sorted out, I would like you to arrange a program of data sharing with NASA where Unknowns are a factor. This will help NASA mission directors in their defensive responsibilities. I would like an interim report on the data review no later than February 1, 1964.
John F. Kennedy
A program of joint space and lunar exploration with the Soviet Union would clearly have placed Kennedy at cross-purposes with Lyndon Johnson and others who viewed the space program as the next great military development and arms race, control of which would assure earth dominance. Such a declassification review and potential release of data would also have brought Kennedy into sharp conflict and cross-purposes with the Majic-12 Group in general, and its Paperclip "specialists" in particular, who viewed space almost exclusively as a military venture.
Russians, Terrorists, Asteroids and Aliens: The Rosin Affidavit
Perhaps the most chilling and corroborative bit of evidence of a secret space program and agenda was left by Wernher von Braun himself. Dr. Carol Rosin, a close associate of the former Nazi cum-NASA director and the first woman corporate manager of Fairchild Industries, gave an affidavit to Dr. Steven Greer's "Disclosure Project" in the Spring of 2001. Rosin recounts something that she alleges von Braun repeatedly told her:
What was most interesting to me was a repetitive sentence that he said to me over and over again during the approximately four years that I had the opportunity to work with him. He said the strategy that was being used to educate the public and decision makers was to use scare tactics.... That was how we identify an enemy.
The strategy that Wernher von Braun taught me was that first the Russians are going to be considered the enemy....
Then terrorists would be identified, and that was soon to follow... Then we were going to identify third-world country "crazies". We now call them Nations of Concern. But he said that would be the third enemy against whom we would build space-based weapons.
The next enemy was asteroids. Now, at this point he kind of chuckled the first time he said it. Asteroids-against asteroids we are going to build space-based weapons. [Implying, incidentally, an immense destructive power -a one-shot planet-busting capacity - for such weapons, for such power they would have to possess to be of any use against an asteroid large enough to destroy the earth, or large enough to threaten all life on it.]
And the funniest one of all was what he called aliens, extra-terrestrials. That would be the final scare. And over and over. during the four years that I knew him and was giving speeches for him, he would bring up that last card. "And remember Carol, the last card is the alien card. We are going to have to build space-based weapons against aliens and all of it is a lie."
~Steven M, Greer, M.D., Disclosure: Military and Government Witnesses reveal the Greatest Secrets in Modern History
Russians, Terrorists. Crazed Third World Dictators. Asteroids. Aliens.
It is significant that President George W. Bush, shortly after his inauguration, made the Army's chief of space operations the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, signaling the first time in history a military space commander has headed such a combined staff position. It is also significant too that almost immediately thereafter missile defense - Ronald Reagan's old Strategic Defense Initiative - once again became a high military and national security priority. And it is perhaps the most significant of all that the tragic events of September 11, 2001, marked the transition from Russians to Terrorists, as the official enemy of choice, and then, with the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, almost immediately to Dictators of "Nations of Concern."
An Unlikely Source: Benito Mussolini's Secret RS/33 UFO- Marconi Study Group: The Original Italian "MJ-12" Documents
But how could Dr. Wernher von Braun, Paperclip rocket "specialist", speaking in the early 1970s, be so exactingly prescient in his prediction of the exact sequence of "enemies"?
One answer, that of the "Torbitt" document, is of course that he himself was a senior "insider", privy to the plots and canards of the innermost conspiracies driving western politics and culture.
However, another source of material has emerged only recently that might afford a clue as to how long UFOs have been being secretly studied and attempts made to back engineer them for some time. In the year 2000, very secret papers from the archives of the Italian government were deliberately leaked to Italian UFOfologists. Unlike the MJ-12 documents, however, these documents were not films, nor photocopies, but the actual handwritten notes and original files and telegrams, on original paper, with original ink. This allowed documents experts from the University of Bologna to do an exhaustive analysis of the paper and inks and style of writing of the telegrams. The conclusion? The documents were undoubtedly authentic.
The story they contained was nothing less than explosive, for they told how, in response to various UFO sightings in the north of Fascist Italy in 1933, and Italian Air Force scrambles to intercept the intruders, that Benito Mussolini had established the first state level black projects UFO study group, under the direction of the famous Italian physicist and inventor Marconi. The group, like a much later American project, assembled reports, photographs, witness testimonies, and developed a classification system for various types of sightings. The group was classified at the highest level by Mussolini. When Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany concluded the Rome-Berlin Axis, Mussolini transferred, often literally shipping this treasure trove of information to Nazi Germany, where it most likely made its way eventually into the hands of the SS. In any case, On February 23, 1941, as the war clouds between the Axis and the United States were growing darker, Mussolini made one of his characteristically blunt statements. He said, "It's far more likely that the United States will be invaded by unknown but warlike inhabitants from the planet Mars, who will come down from the starry space on unimaginable flying fortresses, than from the Soldiers of the Axis."
A strange statement indeed, even for a man who excelled in making unpredictable pronouncements.
What does all this suggest? First, that at the deepest level, a profoundly advanced terrestrial rather than extra-terrestrial technology was behind at least some of the facts associated with Roswell. This technology and its use in unusual combinations points quite clearly to Germany. Second, it means that at a level still deep, but less so, there is an extra-terrestrial aspect that may be part of a disinformation operation and deep-cover story, or that may have entered the picture nearly a decade and a half before Roswell.
In any case, in the light of the fact that as more and more documents are leaked, released, or declassified from the World War Two era, perhaps the most significant lesson to be learned is that one should perhaps be more cautious in ascribing an "ET" origin to such events and sightings without first having considered the terrestrial alternatives, no matter how disquieting those alternatives maybe.