The fact that the Germans were developing advanced technologies during the end of the war is a matter of public record.

As Sir Roy Feddon, Chief of the Technical Mission to Germany for the Ministry of Aircraft Production stated in 1945. "…I have seen enough of their designs and production plans to realise that if they (the Germans) had managed to prolong the war some months longer, we would have been confronted with a set of entirely new and deadly developments in air warfare."

Captain Ruppelt, Chief of the US Air Force Project Bluebook added in 1956, "When WWII ended, the Germans had several radical types of aircraft and guided missiles under development. The majority were in the most preliminary stages, but they were the only known craft that could even approach the performance of objects reported to UFO observers…"

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There are several basic theories of UFO origin. These theories are as follows:

NULL HYPOTHESIS. This is the theory advocated by Phil Klass, Paul Kurtz, and other so-called "skeptics." Essentially, it is the belief that UFOs are all misidentified IFOs (they could be identified if seen by 'experts,' of course) - stars, planets, manmade aircraft, or 'swamp gas' - or they are hallucinations produced by insanity or intoxication. Alternatively, those claiming to see UFOs may be hoaxers, liars, or fame seekers out for a buck.


From years of UFO investigations we know that many ordinary things are mistaken for UFOs. They may be broken down into general categories

A. Errors in perception: after images of bright light sources, astigmatisms, failure to wear glasses, hallucinations, myopia, optical illusions, reflection from glasses, reflection of sun off of planes, reflections from windows, reflections of search lights, retinal defects, vitreous humor.


B. Misidentification of man made objects: airplane lights, artificial satellites, blimps, cigarettes tossed away, contrails, fireworks, ionosphere experiments, kites, magnesium flares, parachutes, rocket firings, satellite reentry, sky-hook balloons, weather balloons


C. Illusions in which objects on the ground seem to be in the sky: automobile headlights, domed roofs, icebergs, lighthouses, lightning rods, oil refineries, radio astronomy antennas.

D. Natural Phenomena: auroral phenomena, ball lightning, birds, bright planets, dust devils, feathers, fires, insect swarms, leaves, meteors, milkweed seeds, soap bubbles, St. Elmo's Fire, strange clouds, swamp gas, tumbleweeds.


Pros: saves any need for further investigation. You can spend money on more productive research, such as the mating practices of guinea pigs, etc.
Cons: Why are you in ufology if you accept this?


Subjective theories posit that UFO experiences may represent psychological abnormalities resulting from Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Fantasy-Prone Personality Syndrome, or other conditions. According to these theories, the experience should be as "real" in the mind of the percipient as any other memory, because it is an induced brain event. Persinger feels intense geomagnetic activity might stimulate the temporal lobe and have just such an effect on the brain. While most of the theories of this kind involve neurological and biochemical explanations, some focus more on the 'psychoanalytic,' looking at the traumas and stresses within the person's life and the personality types likely to have UFO experiences.

: Might explain single-witness cases where only one person in a group sees UFO.
Cons: Has trouble explaining multiple-witness UFO cases, unless one posits mechanisms of 'shared delusion.'

These theories suggest that UFOs may be unreal illusionary projections of some sort of intelligence - the collective unconscious of mankind, "Gaia," or a Cosmic Coincidence Control Center, for example. Any physical effects associated with UFOs are produced psychokinetically by the percipients or by this intelligence. (Jerome Clark and Loren Coleman offered a version of this theory in their book The Unidentified.) This theory points toward the well-known observation that the UFO "reflectively" changes its form to meet the expectations of the percipient, as noted by Keel in his books. Some feel in this vein that the UFOs may be akin to the Tibetan tulpas or materialized thought forms.

: Explains possible continuity between modern UFOs and earlier sightings such as the Great Airship Wave of 1897 or the flying ships of the 800s.
Cons: Difficulty explaining all cases where a clear physical object is touched and/or material traces are left behind - can all such be produced by psychokinesis alone?

PSYCHOSOCIAL/FOLKLORE. Bertrand Meheust and other Europeans have pointed to the links between science fiction and the saucer phenomenon, especially how key elements of it were prefigured in sci-fi stories of the 30s and early 40s. Such researchers are fascinated by H.G. Wells' famous War of the Worlds broadcast and the reactions it produced in 1938 - on the eve of World War II. Thomas Bearden and others in this school see UFOs as psychosocial manifestations of the anxieties of the Cold War and possible global catastrophe. Others, like Vallee, have noted the 'Magonia' connection, and the link between UFO behavior and the lore surrounding dragons, elementals, faeries, and other beings of folktales and myth. The belief of such researchers is that folk culture throughout history has played an extensive amount in how the phenomenon is understood, which is why in our modern scifi/Space Age we see spacesuited astronauts instead of faeries.

: Explains close similarities between certain UFO phenomena and elements of earlier scifi stories. For example, the first "stopped car" story occurs in a 1944 fictional tale, followed by the first UFO account of it in "real life" in 1948. Puts UFO sightings within a sociocultural framework.
Cons: Cannot explain cases that are markedly different from science fiction or other folkloric episodes in human history - i.e. the especially absurd ones.

UFOs may be "Earthlights," or an unusual form of ball lightning. In cases were a structured form has been observed, proponents of this thoery suggest that this is a result of either psychokinetic structuring or spontaneous hallucinations produced by EM emissions from such "energy formations," which some people feel may even be 'electro-animals,' a kind of organism in themselves, perhaps hailing from the 'Superspectrum.' 'Earth Mysteries' investigators like Paul Devereux and John Michell (who note links between UFOs and crop circles, ley lines, megaliths, and special earth zones) tend to lean toward this hypothesis as a likely possibility.

: Explains proximity of UFOs to the lines of the 'World Grid' and sites of geomagnetic activity, and the ability of dowsing/biolocation to discover them.
Cons: Does not seem to explain intelligent behavior on the part of these lights, i.e. avoiding jets, etc., or some of their abilities which seem to defy the laws of physics.


All of the above theories have problems explaining UFO landings, occupants, 'close' encounters, and abductions, especially vis. the physical side-effects of such - "eyeburn," etc. If the UFOs are real objects, then it is a question of origin.

EBH: The Earthbound Hypothesis and the New Breed of Ufologist

HUMAN ORIGIN. Some unknown human civilization - Nazis hiding in Brazil, Deros or Vrillians living within the Hollow Earth, Atlanteans or Lemurians from under the sea or Mount Shasta, or a Hermetic/Rosicrucian secret society - is building and piloting the 'saucers.' Either that, or a known civilization (us, the Russians, the Chinese, etc.) possesses advanced technologies which it is not revealing to the public. This theory would suggest that nonhumans (such as the "Grays") seen aboard the UFOs might be genetically-created lifeforms or robots or androids. Alternatively, some suggest that the Grays may be time travelers from the future, and that they represent the future evolution of humanity - bigger brains and atrophied bodies.

: Explains 'Aryans' and other humans seen aboard the saucers.
Cons: How well could such a civilization really conceal itself from modern technology (satelites, geologic monitoring equipment, remote sensing, etc.)


The Extraterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH) was pioneered by Major Donald Keyhoe, who felt the UFOs could not be of human origin. Early ETH proponents supposed that the UFOs came from Mars, Venus, or other planets in the solar system. Since these planets now appear to be uninhabitable, ETH proponents have taken to suggesting other solar systems - Zeta Reticuli, Barnard's Star, Sirius, etc. The UFOs are then "somebody else's spacecraft," sent here for some unknown mission. Most ETH advocates feel that the UFOnauts mission may be genetic hybridization, colonization of the planet, or assistance to the human race. (The first might be considered benign, the second malevolent, the third benevolent in intention.) Others think they are on a purely exploratory or expeditionary mission, and often argue as to whether bases are maintained on the Moon, on other planets, or here on Earth.

Pros: This hypothesis seems, at first, to be the most possible to confirm (or disprove) according to the Popperian ideal of science. If true, it could save us many SETI dollars.
Cons: There are more to the ETH than are generally acknowledged.

The ETH is problematic for multiple reasons. Vallee covers five, based purely on observational evidence.

1) The unlikely similarity of many of the 'aliens' to humans. There does not seem to be anything in nature favoring a bipedal form. Why are the aliens, then, so humanoid ?
2) The frequency of sightings: too many for an expeditionary force, for sure. If they wish to be clandestine, they are doing a poor job. On the other hand, they haven't asked to see our leader yet.
3) The long history of UFO sightings before 1947.
4) The sheer diversity of reports regarding the shape and size of the craft. How many different kind of alien races could be visiting us all at once?
5) The evidence against an 'advanced' technological civilization - why kidnap humans for genetic material when robbing a sperm bank would do? Why mutilate cattle when you could just scrape off a few cells?

The absurd, metalogical, and metaphysical events surrounding the UFO encounter mitigate against "nuts and bolts" explanations. Further, we know of no means for the UFOs to beat the laws of physics (i.e. relativity) and cross the vast distances of interstellar space, unless they can somehow bend space and time as has been suggested. We also, honestly, have no other confirming evidence of the existence of inhabitable planets out in space or any type or evidence, such as radio contact from the Ozma Project, of extraterrestrial civilizations.

ULTRATERRESTRIAL ORIGIN. Maybe UFOs are "as much a feature of life on this planet as the weather." (Keel) They don't need to come from somewhere else. Besides the possibility of coming from under the sea (Sanderson) or from under the earth(Bernard), UFOs might come from some "Supersargasso in the Sky." (Fort) UFOs may go undetected because they can become invisible, or perhaps they are only visible to those who are slightly clairvoyant. Keel feels they may be emanations of the "Superspectrum," or that they come from other dimensions of existence. Meade Layne of Broderland Sciences felt that they were 'Etherians' coming from a plane of existence normally outside our conscious awareness, and that they can come and go as they please through a process of 'materialization' similar to what psychic mediums do with spiritual "ectoplasm." Students of parapsychology and/or the 'paranormal' lean toward this explanation.

: Explains 'high weirdness' and other aspects of UFO sightings that seem to defy physical law and/or have a 'paranormal' basis.
Cons: Does not explain cases where UFOnauts express extraterrestrial origin and/or provide 'abductees' with evidence for that position.

DECEPTION. Some of the most critical evidence pertaining to "nuts and bolts"/ETH Ufology - the possession of crashed saucers, alien cadavers, alien bases on Earth, secret alien-government treaties, etc. - is based on testimony that emerges from individuals from government and military/intelligence backgrounds. People from such backgrounds can and do operate under a rubric of 'plausible denial' - they will lie when they feel it befits the 'national security' of the U.S., or perhaps merely to save their own ass. This theory suggests that much if not all of UFO testimony of this kind may be a plot of deliberate mis- and dis-information for a variety of motives. Advocates of deception theories disagree as to how much of the UFO phenomenon is deliberately 'staged' by geovernments or extragovernmental "rogue" agencies, and whether or not governments 'know the truth' about "real" UFOs and are hiding it through classification, deception, and disinformation.

Pros: May be the best explanation of governmental involvement. After all, we know how good governments are at deceiving.
Cons: Who is the author of deception in some of these cases - the government of the UFOnauts themselves? It's certainly hard to tell.

These last two theories have been promoted most forcefully by Vallee, who does not rule out categorically any of the other possibilities listed. He does not shy away from suggesting that the 'Messengers of Deception' may be testing the value of UFOs for behavioral/propaganda/political warfare value, or that they may be studying UFO cults as a prime candidate for the absorption of irrational and/or fascistic ideas. Be, he also feels that there is in addition a genuine phenomenon, which is probably extra dimensional (#7) and is an intelligent 'thermostatic' control system of human consciousness (#2). Vallee leaves open the question as to whether the phenomenon is malevolent or benevolent, but he has chronicled examples of UFO behavior which were clearly injurious to humans in an intentional matter.





There are techniques of altering human perception that have been studied by ascetics, fakirs, mystics, and magicians. Those techniques were known collectively as "Magick," as Crowley put it, "which is the art of bringing one's will to fruition in reality." That is the rub, of course: as Arthur C. Clarke put it, "any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." But, as the authors of The Morning of the Magicians note, perhaps magic and alchemy are the remnants of lost sciences? These are difficult questions. Those who think UFOs are supernatural entities usually assume they are angels or devils, though Crowleyans posit that they are magical 'elementals,' and some Eastern scholars have weighed in that they might be daevas, djinni, or spirits. The theory most in vogue in this vein is that the UFOs are the Gentry or Evans-Wentz' mystical faerie race.

: This is what some occult groups, such as the OTO or Golden Dawn factions, have been maintaining about UFOs all along.
Cons: It does not seem to require an incantation to bring our UFO friends, and precious little sorcery seems to be able to get them to leave.

Theories of UFO intentionality

If UFOs are intelligently directed, many people feel it is of the utmost importance to discover whether their purpose is malevolent, benevolent, or benign. Such arguments are frequently waged within the confines of the parameters of the ETH, although others have taken up the debate.

  • Benevolence. Betty Andreasson, Ray Fowler, Whitley Strieber, and Ida Kanonberg have all stressed this belief. They feel the UFOnauts are here to help us take our place in the universe, save ourselves from planetary destruction, or complete our evolution. This is supported by stories of UFO contactees who receive healings, paranormal gifts, increased intelligence, etc. The problem with this hypothesis is, if they are benevolent, why are they operating with such secrecy? What are they trying to hide from us regarding their purposes? Why not tell us their beneficial aims?
  • Malevolence. Proponents of malevolence feel that the UFO-human relationship is exploitative and amoral at best, sinister and dangerous at worst. They feel the UFOs are out to do us grave harm, conquer the planet, or do something even worse. They feel that examples of apparent UFO benevolence may be a means of creating fifth-column 'collaborators' within the human race to help them complete their objectives. UFO malevolence is supported by animal and human mutilation cases, the savage experiments performed on UFO abductees, the rare cases of human injury from UFO "attack," and intimidation by the MIB and so forth. Nonetheless, the cases of direct human injury are extremely rare; in fact, much rarer than we might expect from a hostile force of invaders.
  • Benignness. Supporters of this theory point out that we seem to be treated by the UFOnauts in much the same way as we treat lower forms of life. Not with hostility or overt concern - we simply make sure that we go about our business with as little interference from them as possible. The problem with the 'benignness' hypothesis is that the abduction phenomenon suggests a quite direct concern with humans - although perhaps the same concern we show lab rats, however, while we are making sure they are content and well fed before running them through our mazes. Supporters of the benign hypothesis feel that UFO-caused trauma, injury, or suffering is unintentional and that the UFOnauts are completely unaware of psychological trauma to our species that might result from their activities. They may be here to observe or study but they have some sort of 'prime directive' of noninterference with our society and/or life on our planet.

No psychohistory of the UFO mythos will get very far without an understanding of how the aliens-are-watching-us anxiety came to occupy a central place in ufological thought.