Why Did The Air Force Promote The Extraterrestrial UFO Viewpoint ?
Two Failed National Security Council Policies: UFO Denial and UFO Extraterrestrialism
Sidney Shalett with full cooperation from the intelligence section of the Air Force's Project Grudge published a two part article that appeared on April 30 and May 7, 1949 in The Saturday Evening Post titled "What You Can Believe About flying Saucers". This was the first article to explain nationally the Air Force position on the flying saucer enigma. This article skewed flying saucer reports and the concept of flying saucers into absurdity and ridicule. Robert Ginna and H.B. Darrach published, again with full cooperation of the Air Force, a two part article on April 7 and April 15, 1952 in Life magazine titled "Have We Visitors From Space?" In this article the Air Force endorsed the extraterrestrial viewpoint as an explanation for the appearance and origin of the flying saucer phenomenon.
In three short years and in two major national publications the Air Force position went from rigid denial of the existence of the phenomenon to the promotion of the extraterrestrial hypothesis as an explanation for the appearance and origin of the unidentified flying objects. It now can be viewed the two articles were part of a disinformation campaign designed by the NSC to conceal from the American people the fact that a unique non-human technology was operating advanced aeronautical devices in the atmosphere and from the oceans of the Earth
The promotion of the extraterrestrial hypotheses was apparently viewed as a more manageable policy by the NSC and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, as opposed to the continued denial of the phenomenon's reality whose incidence of sightings was on the increase. Both policies eventually became workable together in undermining the phenomenon's reality and creating a deceptive focal point. Behind the scenes, events almost unbelievable appear to have provided the motivation for the development of these policies. Freedom of information act releases discredit the veracity of both these national articles promoted by the NSC.
In part one of Sidney Shalett's two-part article published on April 30, 1949 Shalett opened with the Air Force's considerable and understandable reluctance to set up a special project to investigate the reported phenomenon. He mentions the Arnold story (first popular flying saucer sighting) being reported in Fate magazine which styles itself as a "cosmic reporter" and mentions that some later reports of UFOs obviously came from hoaxers and publicity seekers. Capt. Thomas F. Mantell's P-51 disintegrated chasing Venus was the conclusion of Dr. J. Allen Hynek, the Air Forces astronomer hired to investigate UFO reports, but later, insiders from the Naval Research Laboratory told Shalett that Capt. Mantell was chasing a Navy cosmic ray balloon. However illogical and absurd the fact that unexplained things were flying over America, the Air Force could not afford a closed mind. Almost one page was devoted to the RAWIN radar target balloons being the source of the sightings.
In part two published May 7, 1949 Shalett makes it clear that the men who constitute the high command of the USAF do not believe in the flying saucers, flying disks, or space ships from Mars or Russia. Even Generals have seen strange things in the sky. A quote from Gen. Carl Spaatz, "If the American people are capable of getting so excited over something which doesn't exist God help us if anyone ever plasters us with a real atomic bomb". Pilots were known to see strange things, they were usually the cause of black outs, vertigo, self hypnosis, and other sensory Illusions. There was evidence of hoaxes and the mass hysteria syndrome was possibly being propelled by rumor. Shalett wrapped up the article with distinguished scientist and Noble Prizewinner Dr. Irving Langmuir. Irving had spent a lifetime debunking "pathological science" and lumped flying saucers into this category. When asked by Shalett what he would advise the Air Force about flying saucers, Irving snapped, "Forget It".
Hidden from public knowledge at that time and later obtained through a freedom of information act query, was a classified intelligence document titled "AMC Opinion Concerning 'Flying Disks' "dated Sept. 28, 1947. Part of the document stated "The phenomenon reported is something real and not visionary or fictitious" and... "The reported operating characteristics such as extreme rate of climb, maneuverability (particularly in roll), and action which must be considered evasive when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar, lend belief to the possibility that some of the objects are controlled either manually, automatically or remotely".
Free of bias in 1948 the British were viewing the UFO events taking place in America from a unique perspective. England had very few UFO sightings and they watched with great interest the peculiar American event as it unfolded. On March 5, 1948 at a meeting of the British ôbrain trustö a group of superiors from the British Interplanetary Society, a question was put "What are the views of the brain trust on flying saucers?" Of the five members, two had no comment, two cautioned an open mind but suggested the matter was absurd, the last, Arthur C. Clark, viewed the fact that 90 percent of the flying objects were being reported over America and not over the rest of the planet, this was an unlikely condition for alien visitation. 
In May, 1950 a little over one year after the publishing of the Shalett UFO denial article editor Jim Bishop of Fawcett Gold Metal Books reported the Pentagon had applied ôa lot of pressureö to prevent the publishing of Donald Keyhoe's book The Flying Saucers Are Real. Bishop challenged the Pentagon to prove publication of the book would do the country harm. The official Pentagon reply was that it had "no interest" in Keyhoe's book.  In contrast to the Shalett debunking article, Robert Ginna and H.B. Darrach's article "Have We Visitors From Space" published in Life magazine April 7, 1952 describes an Air Force that maintains constant intelligence investigation and study of unidentified aerial objects. A policy of positive action using aircraft for interception, radar, and photographic equipment will be used to obtain factual data. Attempts to recover the objects will be made. Operational units of the USAF were ready to report any sightings. Other groups including scientists, pilots both commercial and private, weather observers, anyone whose work concerns the sky are urged to report their sightings to the Air Technical Intelligence Center. Now that Project "Saucer" was a standard intelligence function, the Air Force invited all citizens to report their sighting to the nearest Air Force Base. There was no reason to believe the UFO belonged to a foreign power or constituted a direct threat to the United States.
Exhaustive inquiry concluded disks, cylinders, geometrical forms of a luminous quality and solid nature, for several years, has been present in the atmosphere. Globes of green light brighter than a full moon have frequently passed through the skies. The objects cannot be explained by present science as natural phenomenon but solely as artificial devices, created and operated by a high intelligence. No power plant known or projected could account for the performance of these devices.
Ginna and Darrach went on to evaluate 10 UFO cases. In each instance the deduction was the same, the phenomenon's performance was not of this Earth. Nothing from any country on Earth could operate at the speed, altitude, or rate of acceleration of these devises. No known optical or atmospheric phenomenon could account for what was being seen. No human pilot could stand the tremendous "G" loads brought to bear on the airframe. In 10 cases the evaluation was the same, not of this Earth.
The article conclusion was, they were not psychological phenomenon, products of U.S. research, a Russian development, distortions of the atmosphere due to atomic development, or skyhook balloons. Dr. Walther Riedel chief rocket designer from Peenemünde now doing secret work in the U.S., who had kept saucer records was quoted, "I am completely convinced that they have an out-of-world basis." Dr. Riedel's arguments were reinforced by those of Dr. Maurice A. Biot leading aerodynamicist and mathematical physicist, "The least improbable explanation is that these things are artificial and controlled.....My opinion for some time has been that they have an extraterrestrial origin."
In three years the Air Force position shifted from one extreme to the other. What had happened during this short period of time to cause this reversal of Air Force policy? Both articles were promoted by the Air Force Chief of Staff. UFOs did exist, top-secret internal Air Force documents testified to the UFO reality. The extraterrestrial focus was introduced to the American psyche. UFOs were real and they came from "space" was the new official position of Air Force Intelligence. Major General Charles P. Cabell, Director of Air Force Intelligence Headquarters Washington D.C., skillfully arranged for Bob Ginna and H. B. Darrach of Life magazine to come independently to the conclusion that UFOs were extraterrestrial. The general successfully introduced this new national security policy of viewing the phenomenon as extraterrestrial in nature, into the nation's belief system. For the successful insertion of this critical intelligence policy into the American belief system, the general was rewarded, by his superiors with a promotion. The general was appointed Director of the Joint Staff. Later the general would serve 10 years as deputy director of the CIA. To FOIA requests soliciting information about the general's intelligence record especially at the Joint Staff, there is no record, the general is literally a non-person.
For over a year Ginna had more liberty at Air Technical Intelligence Center than any other reporter and Ruppelt the head of Project "Blue Book" knew that the Air Force had unofficially inspired the Life article.  Never before had a news reporter been given access to the ATIC like Bob Ginna. Ginna fired questions at his hosts at ATIC that made them sweat and rip open bundles of files in search of answers. The Office of Public Relations, at the Pentagon, answer to the surge of newspapermen who flooded ATIC with questions was, "The article is factual, but 'Life's' conclusions are their own."
The article by Ginna, with Air Force cooperation from the highest level set Americas focus on the skies for answers about the critical question, where do UFOs come from? Conspicuously absent in his article was any contribution from the Air Technical Intelligence Center of the numerous marine sightings reported since Columbus's discovery of the New World. The extraterrestrial viewpoint to explain the origin of the phenomenon was formulated by the highest policy body in the nation the National Security Council and implemented into the American belief system by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. UFOs were real and they came from "space".
The Marine Connection
Another top secret document unknown to the American public at the time the Shalett and Ginna articles were published, and not uncovered until 1985 through the Freedom of Information Act by the efforts of researcher Robert Todd, was Air Intelligence Division Study No. 203 titled "Analysis Of Flying Object Incidents In The U.S.". In December 1948 Air Intelligence Division Study No. 203 produced by The Directorate of Air Force Intelligence and Office of Naval Intelligence made the rounds at the highest levels in select segments of the intelligence community.
This document didn't claim the UFOs were interplanetary but considered possible Soviet origin and described the parameters and performance characteristics of past UFO sightings. Startling in this report and with incredible implication were the contents of paragraph No. 7, which stated, "The pattern of sightings is definable." "Sightings have been most intense throughout the states bordering The Atlantic and Pacific coast lines, and the central states of Ohio and Kentucky" the report added "Although reported domestic incidents are widely scattered throughout the U.S., frequency of sighting and number of observers per sighting assumes a definite pattern. There is a large concentration of sightings along the Eastern Seaboard, another large concentration throughout the Western Coast states, and a few sightings in the Middle West. Distortion of incidents by configuration of object and description of maneuverability is approximately equal in each of these areas and this is believed to further substantiate the possibility that one type of object might have been observed in different aspects of flight".
While the air force has always been associated with the study of the UFO phenomenon here we see a keen interest in the phenomenon by the Office of Naval Intelligence. This secret document of December 1948 records the observation that "Sightings have been most intense throughout the states bordering The Atlantic and Pacific coast lines". This very same observation would be repeated during the massive UFO wave of July 1952. UFOs didn't invade America's airspace from Canada or Mexico they appeared from the sea.
Absent in this report was the heavy concentration of UFO sightings over America's atomic testing grounds, nuclear production facilities, and nuclear storage sites in the Western part of the country. The secret document implied (1) the objects were not a threat to national security, (2) there was no evidence indicating the objects were interplanetary, (3) the objects may be an unknown "natural phenomenon".
Air Intelligence Division Study No. 203 with the help of the Office of Naval Intelligence presents the first important clue that the Pentagon was well aware of the phenomenon's marine nature. This document is one of the rarest documents in the national archives linking the Office of Naval Intelligence to any association with the investigation of the phenomenon and offers an early clue that the study of the UFO phenomenon did not fall totally within the realm of the Air Force. Could the naval UFO experience be more involved than the air force? Is there a possibility that the Navy had years ago created a special secret group to investigate the strange aerial and marine manifestations? These questions are unequaled in importance in understanding the UFO phenomenon and the evolution of the modern UFO cover-up. Air Intelligence Division Study No. 203 represents the tip of an iceberg, of naval involvement with the phenomenon that has gone unrecognized for over a hundred years.
A considerable collection of data indicates Naval experience with the phenomenon dated back to the turn of the century and the Navy had accumulated more knowledge and experience with the phenomenon than was previously known. The first journal to routinely publish reports about the phenomenon as early as the 1900's was the U.S. Naval Hydrographic Office's "Notice To Mariners". And the first name given to the enigmatic phenomenon by that same office was "Celestial Phenomenon" seen at sea. Almost fifty years later the air force would call these same enigmatic objects "Unidentified Flying Objects".
One account published in "Notice to Mariners" provides insight into an early serious naval interest in the enigmatic phenomenon. Curious sightings of strange flying objects seen at sea are nothing new in marine history. This one case in particular had the potential to affect and shape naval interest in the phenomenon early in the century more than any other UFO sighting.
The UFO sighting of Lt. Frank H. Schofield while aboard the USS Supply, off the coast of California on the 28th of February 1904 and reported in "Notices To Mariners". Schofield's account was: "The meteors appeared near the horizon and below the clouds, traveling in a group from Northwest to North (true) directly toward the ship"... "At first their angular motion was rapid and color a rather bright red. As they approached the ship they appeared to soar, passing above the clouds at an elevation of about 45 degrees. After rising above the clouds their angular motion became less and less until it ceased, when they appeared to be moving directly away from the Earth at an elevation of about 75 degrees and in direction West-Northwest (true). It was noted that the color became less pronounced as the meteors gained in angular elevation".
"When sighted, the largest meteor was in the lead, followed by the second in size at a distance of less than twice the diameter of the larger, and then by the third in size at a similar distance from the second in size. They appeared to be traveling in echelon, and so continued as long as in sight".
"The largest meteor had an apparent area of about six suns. It was egg shaped the sharper end forward. This end was jagged in outline. The after end was regular and in full outline".
"The second and third meteors were round and showed no imperfections in shape. The second meteor was estimated to be twice the size of the sun in appearance, and the third meteor about the size of the sun".
"When the meteors rose there was no change in relative positions nor was there at any time any evidence of rotation or tumbling of the large meteor".
"The near approach of these meteors to the surface and the subsequent flight away from the surface appeared to be most remarkable, especially so as their actual size could not have been great. That they did come below the clouds and soar instead of continuing their southeasterly course is also equally certain, as the angular motion ceased and the color faded as they rose. The clouds in passing between the meteors and the ship completely obscured the former. Blue sky could be seen in the intervals between the clouds.
"The meteors were in sight over two minutes and were carefully observed by three people, whose accounts agree as to details." 
This account is only another marine UFO sighting in a massive collection of marine sightings, except, the witness later would become Admiral Schofield, Commander In Chief, of the Pacific Fleet in the 1930s. The accountability and detail of the Schofield sighting could only confirm suspicions, collected from numerous historical marine reports, that unidentified aerial objects were operating over the Earth's oceans and seas.
When military personal who have had UFO experiences rise to the highest levels of the military hierarchy it would be prudent to expect that they would give the UFO reality exacting consideration throughout their careers. The probably that a secret Naval project was formed later in the century to analyze the plenteous collection of worldwide UFO sightings is certainly magnified when Lieutenant Schofield's UFO sighting, and his ascent in the naval hierarchy are considered. The rise of Schofield to CIC of the Pacific Fleet with a perception for unusual marine phenomenon certainly should have influenced the development and direction of naval UFO investigations. Frank H. Schofield was in a position to have had a pivotal influence on the Office of Naval Intelligence concerning UFO investigations.
The name assigned to the frequently occurring phenomenon by the Air Technological Intelligence Center, Unidentified flying object, is woefully incorrect as a name to define the reported phenomenon. Fifty-percent of all UFO reports describe a phenomenon that is flying to the sea, flying from the sea, flying over the sea, diving into the water, coming out of the water, or operating with submarine like characteristics under the sea.  An amphibious designation also falls short of accurately portraying the unique marine capability displayed by the phenomenon.
A more comprehensive and definitive name for the phenomenon would have to recognize the multiphibious characteristics inherent to the phenomenon from a numerous collection of land, and marine sightings. The term unconventional multiphibious vehicle (UMV) certainly describes succinctly the reported phenomenon. The implications of the phenomenon's historical association with the sea are compounded by the fact that half of all UFO sightings are reported by a exceedingly small number of observers. This fact, this statistical anomaly is explosive in its indications.
A casual survey of UFO literature is replete with cases of UFOs causing interference and disruptions with the electromagnetic spectrum. Ships compasses wander and deviations in the Earth's magnetic field are reported when UFOs are seen. Cosmic ray indicators fluctuate. Radio and TV disturbances are common. Automobile, truck, and aircraft electrical systems fail in the presence of UFOs. Plants, animals, and human beings are burnt by radiation emitted by UFOs when in close proximity. Acoustic signatures and sonar contacts have been reported when UFOs are seen entering or emerging from the sea. Intense light emissions of every spectrum are reported in UFO sightings. If UFOs appeared in close proximity to naval vessels and affected radio communications, the naval communications intelligence section of naval operations would have been vigilant of any electromagnetic affect experienced.
The Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Soon after H.G.Wells wrote The War Of The Worlds in 1898 radio signals of an unknown origin were detected between 1899-1924 by three experimental scientists, Nikola Tesla, Guglielmo, and David Todd each working independently of each other observed electromagnetic transmissions that suggested possible interplanetary communications. According to Tesla in 1899, ..."they are the results of an attempt by some human beings, not of our world, to speak to us by signals....I am absolutely certain that they are not caused by anything terrestrial." Marconi in 1921 while on the "Elettra" in the Mediterranean received radio transmissions he felt originated from outer space.
By 1924 American science fiction writers had developed a conceptual foundation in the American mental framework to accept the possibility that intelligent life could exist on other planets in the solar system. An early focus in the search for an extraterrestrial intelligence was the moon but science discounted this because of the fact that the moon lacked an atmosphere that made life impossible by human standards. A preoccupation developed with some thinkers in the science community that because of its relative similarity to earth, there was a possibility that there was life on the planet Mars.
Astronomers had reported atmospheric and seasonal changes and a system of canals. Mars became the focus of the place where another "human" like intelligent species could reside. Some American scientists were certain this theoretical species, if they were real, would try to contact earth.
Most certainly the Navy was not immune from this viewpoint. The navy's historical experience with strange "celestial phenomenon" seen at sea, had to have developed into a preoccupation that surely influenced the naval intelligence community. The UFO phenomenon had been observed and reported in ships logs and journals dating back to at least the time of Christopher Columbus's discovery of the new world.
The reality that Earth may indeed be the object of visitation by another intelligent species from the planets had to have matured to the point where some element of naval intelligence was searching for the place of origin for the broadly reported phenomenon. In July, 1922 the code and signal section of the Naval Communications Service was assigned the organizational title of OP-20-G. Later the X subsection of this cryptological group became responsible for radio direction finding, communications interception, and the analysis of all electromagnetic emissions within the radio spectrum. Because of the tremendous distances involved in oceanic communications naval signal intelligence was positioned at the highest levels in the nation's intelligence organization. Naval Cryptology was responsible for sending and deriving information from the entire electromagnetic spectrum.
OP-20-G was one of the first sections in the intelligence community to compartmentalize intelligence. This was not a security classification like top secret. Access was limited to those individuals who had a definite need to know specific information gained by cryptology. If there were indeed electromagnetic emissions emanating from the enigmatic "Celestial Phenomenon" seen at sea, the people who worked at the secret OP-20-G section in naval operations would have been the first to know.
The futuristic flight characteristics and observed flight formations indicating intelligent control should have been the factor that motivated the Department of the Navy to create the first SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence) project in 1924. The projects focus was on Mars as the planet came within 34 million miles from Earth. The unique combination of mysterious radio transmissions and unidentified flying object sightings certainly was an indicator to some military scientists that Mars was inhabited by intelligent beings and they were visiting earth. The impact on government and military thinking by H.G. Wells War of the Worlds certainly influenced the decision to focus on Mars for any electromagnetic emissions as it approached Earth in 1924.
The seriousness of this first SETI project required that the government order all radio transmissions to cease at the time of the experiment. A navy admiral ordered world wide radio silence for the entire naval fleet at this time. Cooperation for this period of radio silence worldwide was obtained through American diplomatic channels.  Dr. David Todd using the Jenkins radio-camera for the Naval Observatory recorded a series of dots on sensitized paper during the time of the test. The first digital communications ever received were recorded from an unknown source during this first period of world scientific cooperation.
Even world renowned code expert William F. Friedman, then Chief of the Code Section in the office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Army was standing by to translate any messages that may have come from Mars.  Friedman in 1952 became chief technical consultant to the National Security Agency and two years later became the special assistant to the director of the National Security Agency. 
During this period of enlightenment and discovery in American science this early SETI project involved, the Department of the Navy, the National Bureau of Standards, the Army's Signal Corps, the Naval Observatory, the diplomatic community, and the best scientific minds in the country,. In the background one scientist of particular importance to the UFO problem in the coming years, Dr. Donald H. Menzel, knew human-like beings could not be on Mars sending radio messages for the atmosphere was too thin. It was during this time in American history that Dr. Donald H. Menzel obtained one of the first degrees in astrophysics. Menzel years later would become a strict supporter of the intelligence communities first policy dealing with UFOs, the policy of denial.
Sometime after 1924 the collection of reports of strange flying machines that behaved contrary to the known scientific dictates of that time had to indicate to naval researchers that the earth was more enigmatic then tradition alluded. Evidence was being continually added to support the hypothesis that the observed phenomenon might be a previously undiscovered natural phenomenon. During that time the Polar Regions and the oceans in general were relatively unexplored. The navy was thrust by fate to become the agency to investigate and resolve the reality of the mysterious and perplexing historical "Celestial Phenomenon" seen at sea.
By 1929 the IPY (International Polar Years) study focused on the Polar Regions of the earth for clues about the "Celestial Phenomenon" that had been observed over the oceans. The secret naval interest and voyages into the Polar Regions were disguised as missions of exploration and scientific discovery. This shift in focus from Mars to the poles was logical as continued reports of the phenomenon were logged worldwide. The remoteness and isolation of the Polar Regions stirred the imaginations of these scientists and a focus on Antarctica developed in the scientific community where a possible base for a visiting intelligence could exist.
Frank Edwards wrote of this interest, "Early in this century a few scientists had cautiously theorized that such study (of the Polar Regions) would vindicate their suspicions (Celestial Phenomenon), if it ever became possible."  Unfortunately, Edwards did not document who these scientists were. Interestingly, the South Pole 28 years later would be the focus of the navy's "Operation Deepfreeze" excursions into Antarctica for the IGY (International Geophysical Year) world survey and just in time for a predictable increase in UFO activity. This later polar survey was managed by the National Security Council Operations Coordinating Board.
Dr. Donald H. Menzel's complicity to the secret naval UFO investigatory group and UFO cover-up becomes vivid when his role played in the UFO theater is understood. Dr. Menzel had long ties and associations to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Naval intelligence. He was most likely recruited by these agencies to investigate the phenomenon because he obtained one of the first degrees in astrophysics. The freedom of information act ceases to work when queries are made soliciting information about his early activities in the intelligence community. National security interests override the public's right to know of Dr. Menzel's involvement with the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Office of Naval Intelligence.
Dr. Menzel's academic and naval careers position him uniquely to have had a part in Naval UFO investigations. Dr. Menzel was associated with Navy cryptology, the Office of Naval Intelligence, the National Security Agency, the Naval Observatory, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1930 to 1960. Dr. Menzel's academic passion in real life was astronomy and the study of the sun from his roost at Harvard. Dr. Menzel also lived a secret life in the world of top secret cryptological compartmentalized intelligence.
He had a long association with a "special group" originally lodged in the Office of Naval Intelligence and then later the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and finally the National Security Agency, throughout his entire 30 years of intelligence service. This association only became known because of a rift that developed between President Kennedy and this "special group" in 1960. Menzel offered to mediate the problem President Kennedy developed with this "special group" located in the national security structure because of his 30 year long association with it. 
Dr. Menzel had two UFO sightings, one in 1947 and the other in 1948 at Holloman Air Base near Alamogordo, the New Mexico atomic test site. His earliest reflections on the phenomenon were noncommittal and yielding only that he had certain ideas about what the phenomenon could be. A short time later his focus paralleled the National Security Council's UFO denial policy. At that time he was associated with the Joint Chiefs of Staff doing secret radio wave propagation experiments. Dr. Menzel was able to explain all sightings of the UFO phenomenon as insignificant naturally occurring and misinterpreted atmospheric aberrations caused by weather and temperature light inversions.
Dr. Menzel's temperature and light inversion theories explained the appearance of all UFO sightings. These theories were soon found suspect by Air Force Intelligence and the Air Technological Intelligence Center who knew the phenomenon was real. At that time ATIC investigations focused on a collection of UFO reports that involved the simultaneous observation of the phenomenon by radar, pilots, and ground observers, these reports were given top priority by ATIC analysts.
Whenever public curiosity developed regarding the phenomenon Dr. Menzel was there with full scientific credential to refute and discount the phenomenon's reality in the publics eye. Dr. Menzel became a predator to those in the scientific community who developed a continued interest in the UFO phenomenon. Armed with a Ph. D. in astronomy, an extensive knowledge in optical physics, and special knowledge about the phenomenon gained from his position in naval intelligence. Menzel carried a deadly sting to the arguments of his colleges and juniors in the scientific community who supported the phenomenon's reality.
Dr. Menzel was a well trained scientific heavy weight in the fight to block the American scientific community from becoming involved in the study of the UFO phenomenon, in spite, of his own observations. In retrospect it can be viewed that Dr. Menzel played a role of misinforming and disinforming a generation of scientists and a trusting public about the unique natural phenomenon that had appeared in large numbers in American reality after the birth of the atomic bomb.
Dr. Menzel's association with disinformation continued well after his death. He is mentioned as a member of the team that studied the UFO crash in Roswell, N.M. on June of 1947 in the mysterious and suspect MJ-12 Briefing Document that surfaced in 1984. Here Dr. Menzel is mentioned in a context uncharacteristic of his earlier debunking views that UFO's did not exist. A quote from the briefing document states..."Since it is virtually certain that these craft do not originate in any country on Earth, considerable speculation has centered around what the point of origin might be and how they got here. Mars was and remains a possibility, although some scientists, most notably Dr. Menzel, consider it more likely that we are dealing with beings from another solar system entirely...".
After his death in 1976, he was still used by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to promote the fabricated extraterrestrial UFO hypotheses. It would be prudent not to accept the context of the MJ-12 Briefing Document since Dr. Menzel was dead when this document surfaced. There is a high probability the document is disinformation designed by national security managers to reinforce the extraterrestrial hypothesis. Dr. Menzel's debunking views of the UFO phenomenon during his naval and academic careers certainly paralleled the National Security Council's policies that were implemented by the Jointed Chiefs of Staff. Dr. Menzel's affinity for the Naval Research Laboratory was observed by Dr. Hynek, who stated that every time he went to the NRL Menzel was always there. Unfortunately records from the NRL dating from 1946 to the 1960's and most records from the Joint Chiefs of Staff have been destroyed. Dr. Menzel's activities at the Joint and Common Chiefs of Staff as well as the Naval Research Laboratory will never be known to historians. To "Freedom of Information Act" queries Dr. Menzel is another non-person.
One book should have been sufficient to debunk the phenomenon but Dr. Menzel was compelled to write three books attacking the phenomenon’s reality. This strange and unusual motivation only recently can be understood as his role in the UFO cover-up is exposed. One statement by Menzel should in time prove to be a potential powder keg, "I do not believe that the exploding of the atomic bomb was in any way a direct cause of the saucers".  Substantial evidence indicates the opposite is true. It is interesting to note that the Office of Naval Research was established on August 1946, one month after the completion of the nuclear tests at Eniwetok in the South Pacific and at the time of the first outbreak of UFO reports.
A number of UFO sightings occurring between the 1940's and 1960's firmly support a Marine-earth UFO hypotheses rather than an extraterrestrial hypotheses. The implications of the phenomenon's marine association give us clear insight into why an ultra secret campaign evolved to debunk the UFO reality. The Department of Navy avoids any association with the UFO phenomenon like it was the plague. Naval vessel logbooks have been erased of all UFO sightings. The Naval Research Laboratory records have been destroyed. All Joint Chiefs of Staff records have been destroyed without authorization.
If it can be determined from aerial sightings that UFOs are from "space" as the American people have been led to believe, then what can be determined about the origin of UFOs that operate like flying submarines from the oceans of the earth? The following UFO report from 1942 certainly drowns the lofty extraterrestrial viewpoint created to explain the appearance of the phenomenon. Off the coast of Tasmania there were reports of strange lights in the Bass Strait by local fisherman. The Royal Air Force patrolled the straits looking for the cause of the lights. This account by a RAF airman describes a phenomenal sighting that severely challenged his collective belief system concerning aerial machinery and reality.
......"At 5:50 P.M., of a lovely sunny evening, we were flying some miles East of the Tasman Peninsula when on a sudden, there came out of a cloud bank, a singular airfoil of glistening bronze color. I'd say it was around 150 feet long, and about fifty feet in diameter. It had a short beak on its prow, and the surface seemed burled, or rippled, or fluted. On its upper surface was a dome or cupola, from which I seemed to see reflected flashes as the sun struck something, which might or might not have been a helmet, worn by something inside. The other end of the airfoil fined out into a sort of fin. Every now and again there came from its keel greenish-blue flashes. It turned at a small angle towards us and I was amazed to see, framed in a white circle on the front of the dome, an image of a large, grinning Cheshire cat!"
"The damn thing flew parallel to us for some minutes, and then it abruptly turned away and, as it did so, it showed four things like fins on its belly-side. It went off at a hell of a pace, turned and dived straight down into the Pacific, and went under, throwing up a regular whirlpool of waves! Just as if it had been a submarine. No, the Japs had nothing in the amphibious line like that mysterious bird !.... The person who reported this incident went on to work at the secret weapons and long range missiles experimental desert station in Woomera, Australia, certainly not a person prone to delusion.
The significance of the observation of fins on this object implies a marine function on an aeronautical object. This indicates the flying machine was also engineered to operate from the oceans while initially observed preforming advanced aerial maneuvers. As the concept of the origin of the UFO falls from the extraterrestrial heights promoted by the National Security Council, to the depths of the oceans, this simple testimony by a witness offers another piece of forensic evidence indicating the phenomenon's marine association.
The image of the grinning Cheshire cat on this unconventional multiphibious vehicle, while at first thought may seem preposterous, indicates painfully a connection and hidden relationship of the phenomenon to human experience. This similarity and mimicking, of the pictorials painted on the allied bombers and fighters of that time period, by the UFO is disturbing in its context and unfortunate for the current human belief systems.
In 1950 the "revolt of the Admirals led to the deployment of nuclear weapons on naval ships. The Franklin D. Roosevelt was one of the first aircraft carriers to deploy Mark-3 nuclear weapons. The FDR's UFO experiences started when the vessel operationally began to carry nuclear weapons. The FDR’s voyages became the object of a strange aerial reconnaissance by the UFO that is exceptional in naval experience.
The preoccupation by the UFO to the FDR's voyages indicates a direct vulnerability to nuclear weapons and their mobility. This vulnerability appears to be so considerable that the phenomenon compromised its usually secretive and hidden existence in our domain to monitor the FDR's voyages at the risk of exposure. It is this vulnerability to nuclear weapons that is the greatest indicator that links the phenomenon to the physical world and indicates that somewhere on the planet, in some unperceived domain, another intelligence shares the world with humanity. This diagnostic clue is central to any forensic investigation of the UFO phenomenon. Again a marine theme links the phenomenon's presence to environmental rather then extraterrestrial association.
The FDR's case history of UFO surveillance has been well documented by Chet Grusinsky who while serving as a seaman on the FDR observed a glowing cigar like object with a row of windows approach the FDR. According to Grusinsky, "It was close enough you could see a row of windows. You could see through the windows, and there were figures. My impression was they were not human beings. It took off quick and I could feel the heat on my skin."  The UFO's interest in the FDR was extensive in the Atlantic. The FDR was under surveillance by UFOs during cruises to Brazil, and Guantanamo, Cuba. UFOs followed the carrier from Mayport, Florida, to England, and into the Mediterranean Sea. The FDR's homeport in Mayport, Florida became the object of an increase in UFO sightings when the carrier returned from sea operations. In the Atlantic off the FDR's homeport in Mayport, Florida, UFOs were frequently seen, as if they were on station waiting for the carrier to begin a cruise.  The reason for the FDR's Atlantic UFO escort remains a mystery, but Chester Grusinsky feels the escort certainly was an indicator that the UFO phenomenon had a keen interest in nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon mobility.
During the FDR's participation in the Operation Mainbrace maneuvers in the North Sea in 1952 UFOs over flew and followed the fleet for several days. It was these overflights in the North Sea that caused the RAF to officially recognize the UFO reality. There are no records of the FDR's UFO sightings appearing in the ships log. It is interesting that several UFO researchers have recently reported that U. S. Naval vessel logs appear to have been tampered with. Researchers who are following up on UFO sightings reported from naval vessels are finding the ships logs have been edited and rewritten without any mention of the sightings.
Unconventional Flying Objects:`A Scientific Analysis by Paul R. Hill published in 1995 focused on the phenomenon's physics and aerodynamics. Paul R. Hill's personal sightings in July 1952 were witnessed from the shores of the Chesapeake Bay. He witnessed three objects maneuvering over the Chesapeake Bay. Hill’s later physical analysis of the objects concluded the "UFOs were not aircraft, for they do not utilize aerodynamic forces". They had high thrust to weight ratio and thrust-vector control. Hill was able to calculate in one instance the physical density as about 96 percent that of water, exceedingly close to the density of a conventional submarine. According to Hill "This density, if representative, could explain the observed underwater operation and the apparent multiphibious nature of the UFO. It's particularly important that we take note that an object of this density, equipped with a retractable landing gear, is a very substantial "flying" machine made to land on land and having properties consistent with operation from water surfaces or even underwater." This observation by Hill is a difficult concept to deal with, a flying submarine that far outperformed the best jets in the Air Force inventory at that period of time. Yet numerous marine sightings confirm the accuracy of Hill's observations. Hill commented that his instant impression of his sighting was that the vehicles were surveying the East Coast. Hill's observations certainly confirm the validity of Air Intelligence Division Study No. 203's reflection that the phenomenon approached the United States from the marine environment rather than from a continental direction. The logical question of where in the oceans do the phenomenon originate from was addressed by IGY. Leonard H. Stringfield recalled that while en route to the Atsugi Airdrome, Tokyo, August 28, 1945, before the major allied landing, he was midway between Ie Shoma and Iwo Jima and recalled, "As the plane dipped, sputtered oil and lost altitude...I remember looking out through one of the portholes and to my surprise, seeing three unidentifiable blobs of brilliant white light, each about the size of a dime held at arms length." The blobs followed the plane at the same speed "seemingly parallel to the C-46,...when my plane pulled up, the objects remained below and they disappeared into a cloud bank." 
Another marine incident, worthy of deep investigation by researchers, focuses on the island of Tinian, where the bombers were stationed that dropped the atomic bombs on Japan in 1945. "In the last weeks (late April, 1953), our ships and aircraft have sighted numerous flying objects of unknown origin. Their flight courses were plotted and permit conclusions about their take-off and landing bases. Near the island of Tinian, one of these projectiles was rammed by a specially equipped airplane and sunk into the sea."(Report of the Chief of the U.S. Defense HQ., D., Tokyo, May 9, 1953.) 
In 1963 over the Puerto Rico Trench a Naval task force of helicopters and aircraft from the carrier Wasp and several smaller surface ships tracked and hunted an undersea object that had been detected by sonar. For four days an unidentified sumerged object played a cat and mouse like game with the Naval task force. The object was tracked by sonar traveling at speeds up to 170 miles per hour and maneuvering to depths as great as 27,000 feet.  In this unique report it can be seen that the Navy is able to interact gamefully with the intelligence that drives the UFO. A hide and seek catch me it you can frolic, initiated by the intelligence that operates the unidentified submarine object, taunts the Naval task force for four days.
In the document "AMC Opinion Concerning æ Flying Disks", appearing Sept. 28, 1947 there is a significant observation that states "action which must be considered evasive when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar" describes intent by the phenomenon to remain outside of human perception. Yet here apparently UFO policy has changed. It is critical to understand the reason why traditional evasive action observed by the UFO has been replaced with a new UFO policy that now taunts the military high command.
These reports indicate by 1963 there have been 16 years of conscious conflict between the phenomenon and the American military. This implies there is literally a "secret war" going on between two different and diverse intelligence's based here on Earth, one is human and the other remains unidentified. Indications suggest this "secret war" is escalating, and future developments may be imminent.
From the Puerto Rico report additional insight into the degree of technological separation that exists between human technology and the "other" technology can be evaluated. It can be inferred that the degree of separation between the two technologies is not as great as is commonly believed. How much more advanced is a technology that propels a flying submarine and gives it the ability to travel 170 miles per hour underwater and dive to 27,000 feet and fly to deep space? Compared to a technology that drives a non-flying submarine that operates at 80 miles per hour underwater and has the ability to dive to 2,000 feet? It is quite evident the two technologies are separated only by an insignificant period of time especially when measured by geohistorical time.
The Nuclear Looking Glass
Early in the development of nuclear weapon technology, nuclear development centers were besieged with UFO reports. The December 1948 Air Intelligence Division Study No. 203 produced by The Directorate of Air Force Intelligence and Office of Naval Intelligence states in paragraph No. 7 that "The Pattern of Sightings is definable. Sightings have been most intense throughout the states bordering The Atlantic and Pacific coast lines, and the central states of Ohio and Kentucky" . The mention of the central states of Ohio and Kentucky indicates that the secret nuclear material processing plants in that area were under surveillance. Although the study makes no mention of the green fireballs that plagued the New Mexico nuclear test site. It is now known that considerable green fireball activity was observed over the New Mexico test site from 1945 to 1949.
Nuclear testing at Eniwetok in the South Pacific in 1946 and the appearance of unconventional aerial objects in large numbers occur, for the first time in modern history, within a one-month period. The nuclear weapons storage facility at Ft. Hood in Texas had extensive overflights of white fireballs of unknown origin according to FBI documents released by FOIA queries. The overflights of this extraordinary secret nuclear weapon storage facility by white fireballs created considerable stress in the Army high command.
The implications of these early demonstrations indicates a unique intent. It can be inferred that rather than an extraterrestrial concern by benevolent space beings over developments here on earth, there is an apparent vulnerability to nuclear technology, by a previously unperceived secular intelligence. By July 1947 America became the object of an aerial reconnaissance operation by UFOs so enigmatic that a new word was coined nationally in the American vocabulary to describe the object that was responsible for the American survey: Flying Saucers. This is not flimsy circumstantial evidence, but the testimony of a nation describing a new event in the nation's history.
The phenomenon's response to nuclear testing in such a short period of time is another forensic indication that the phenomenon is a part of earth's environment. The ability of the phenomenon to appear in large numbers soon after the fateful use of these weapons on Japan and then assemble a systematic earth survey, again is an indicator that extraterrestrial forces are not responsible for the phenomenon's appearance. But more likely implies the phenomenon's representation is related to a cause and affect relationship between nuclear use and UFO appearance.
The British master of science fiction Arthur C. Clark in 1948 knew an alien invasion when he saw one, and observed that 90 per cent of Flying Saucer sightings appeared over the United States. His reflection was that the focus of the sightings was on America, and this is not what one could expect from an alien invasion. Six major waves of UFO sightings have occurred over the United States from 1947 to 1973, most occurred during periods of nuclear testing.
Unaddressed are the implications that the nation responsible for the development of this new technology of destruction and its use became the focus of 90 per cent of all UFO sightings by this strange new phenomenon in human experience. And astonishingly the phenomenon had the ability to focus its surveillance exactly on atomic testing sites, production facilities, and storage centers and air bases where nuclear operational air wings were on alert. Our British master of science fiction stops short of any analysis of where the invasion of America might have come from if it were not alien As the forensic elements of this tear in the nation's mental fabric are slowly collected and assembled, and the extraterrestrial hypothesis promoted by The National Security Council can be viewed as a failed policy. The relationship between atomic development and UFO appearance offers the strongest evidence of the phenomenon's terrestrial reality.
UFO activity over Japan and the surrounding Pacific has been substantial historically.  As UFO activity over Japan has been documented both before and after the tragic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, this certainly is another indicator the phenomenon had an interest in, and was monitoring human affairs in this region. UFO activity at Guam both before and after the tragic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were reported so often during World War 2 the accounts were printed in the Army unit bulletins of the troops stationed in the area. There is an unusual amount of activity by the phenomenon in this area.
In fact nuclear testing and the military use of nuclear weapons appear to have been responsible for a UFO "IGY" like study of the nations of the world by another intelligence. The continued result of nuclear testing in this area indicates the UFO phenomenon is directly affected by these events. This unique "IGY" like survey of the world by the UFO phenomenon which continued for the duration of nuclear testing, starting first at Eniwetok and continuing throughout testing at Yucca Flats, Nevada, is a most enduring piece of forensic evidence. This indicates a direct relationship between nuclear testing and UFO activity.
The Soviets experienced their own UFO wave in 1949, the year of their first nuclear detonation. Three nuclear detonations at the Bikini Atoll, between April and May, in 1948 seem to be responsible for the UFO wave of 1950. During 1950 the UFO phenomenon appeared in unusually large numbers over the United States, Caribbean, North Africa, and Spain. The countries of Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba, in the Caribbean experienced extensive UFO overflights in 1950.
By April, 1952 UFO activity over the United States was on an increase. Again indicating human activity, especially nuclear activity, was a concern by the intelligence that was behind the UFO phenomenon and indications are the military knew that the phenomenon would respond to the May nuclear testing with a predictable immediacy. This series of atomic detonations and the predictable response by the phenomenon are most likely the reason national security planners foresaw the need for a national article to address the UFO phenomenon. The timely appearance of Bob Ginna's article in "Life" magazine April 7, 1952 promoting the extraterrestrial hypothesis was designed to shield and misinform Americans from gaining insight to a potentially threatening aspect of reality to the nation's current mental fabric.
The first public report of the predicted increase in UFO activity appears in the press May 11, 1952.  The title of the article reads "Photos of `Saucer` Indicate Its Real". The article indicates the Brazilian photos will be given to the American embassy and the National Security Council for analysis. The five photographs taken show a UFO as it tumbles through the air. These photos only confirm the legitimacy of the Air Intelligence Division Study No.203 observation that the "Distortion of incidents by configuration of object and description of maneuverability is approximately equal in each of these areas and this is believed to further substantiate the possibility that one type of object might have been observed in different aspects of flight." Personal FOIA inquires to the National Security Council by this writer yielded that they never heard of, or received any Brazilian photos of UFOs, or of any other UFOs. And that I should make an inquiry to the national archives for the related data. I shall not.
The UFO wave of 1952 was more selective than the UFO waves of 1947 and 1950. High numbers of UFO reports were observed over Western Europe and the United States. In the United States UFOs flew over the White House and Capital Building on at least 24 different occasions during the months of May, June, July, and August. Some UFO researchers maintain that the 24 Washington over-flights indicate the intelligence behind the phenomenon possibly tried to pressure or warn Washington against continued nuclear testing.
In doing so the phenomenon compromised again its apparent historical desire to remain outside human perception. Indications are the Joint Chiefs of Staff was well aware of this terrestrial connection. This reciprocity becomes evident when the eight nuclear tests between April and June 1952 and the establishment of the Ground Observer Corps in July 1952 are viewed in this new context.
Operation Skywatch the official name for the Ground Observer Corps was put into effect July 14, 1952. 500,000 volunteers manning 19,400 observation posts 24 hours a day in 36 states fed information to 49 filter centers concerning suspicious aerial activity over the United States. Air Force Chief of Staff General Nathan F. Twining called the effort necessary because of a threatening Soviet bomber fleet. The fact was a massive UFO wave was about to happen because of the nuclear testing in Nevada. The patriotic blue-blooded men of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the National Security Council found deception to be in the nations best interest concerning the UFO phenomenon.
Edward J. Ruppelt in his book The Report On Unidentified Flying Objects describes so succinctly the awareness held by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Council of the coming July 1952 UFO wave. Ruppelt writes, " A few days prior to the incident (Washington UFO over-flights) a scientist from an agency that I can't name, and I were talking about the build-up of reports along the East coast of the United States". (This is a repeat of the UFO wave of 1947 as evidenced in Air Intelligence Division Study No.203) "We talked for about two hours, and I was ready to leave when he said he had one last comment to make--a prediction. From his study of the UFO reports that he was getting from Air Force headquarters, and from discussions with his colleagues, he said that he thought that we were sitting right on top of a big keg full of loaded Flying Saucers. "Within the next few days " he told me, and I remember that he punctuated his slow deliberate remarks by hitting the desk with his fist, " They're going to blow up and you're going to have the granddaddy of all UFO sightings. The sightings will occur in Washington or New York", he predicted, "probably Washington". This evidence indicates the military was monitoring the buildup of the July 1952 UFO wave with such accuracy that predictions to timing and location could be forecast.
The first reports of naval ships carrying nuclear weapons becoming the object of UFO surveillance were reported at this time. During the UFO wave of 1952 the National Security Council recognized the need for establishing the National Security Agency. The birth of the most secret communications agency in the national security structure soon after the Washington over-flights implies a cause and affect relationship of these two events. In retrospect we can see considerable evidence indicating the National Security Council was cognizant the thirteen planned nuclear detonations at Bikini Atoll between May and July in 1956 would bring an all-out UFO wave by July 1957, the starting date for the IGY world survey.
The most disturbing aspect of UFO behavior especially for current human cognition suggests the phenomenon has always had a comprehensive ability to monitor human evolution. The phenomenon's early focus on America and more specifically New Mexico during nuclear development substantiates that the phenomenon is not a new development in human experience, but more likely represents the presence of a less visible and older intelligence that shares earth with humanity. Humanity has survived without problem with this other earth entity until nuclear development.
This profile when interpreted forensically indicates there is a unique relationship between humanity and the intelligence that is responsible for the UFO phenomenon. Or in other words, there is a native hierarchy here on earth that is older than and is responsible for the creation of humanity. This formerly clandestine intelligence, fleetingly observed throughout history, may now be in conflict with its human creation. One would expect imminent change is near in human affairs.
The Search for Terrestrial Intelligence: the International Geophysical Year World Survey
The need for the IGY (International Geophysical Year) scientific earth study was recognized as early as 1950 by James Van Allen, Lloyd Berkner, and Sydney Chapman. These men worked in upper atmospheric physics during the beginning of extensive UFO activity over White Sands, N.M. in the middle part of the 1940s when the first nuclear weapons tests began. Lloyd Berkner at that time was a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Weapons System Evaluation Group". The WSEG integrated high level security cleared scientific, military, and political personal into this UFO working group that studied the potential impact of the UFO reality on America's political, social, economic and military institutions.
Van Allen, Berkner, and Chapman were responsible for initiating to the Joint Chiefs of Staff the need to investigate the "complex phenomenon", another name for Flying Saucers, that appeared over New Mexico during nuclear development and testing. This most important and secret piece of national real estate to the military and the scientific community had been reconnoitered intensively by UFOs from 1945 to 1950.
The National Academy of Sciences with the approval of the National Science Foundation persuaded the government to underwrite the IGY project. The National Security Council, the highest policy making body in the land recognized the need and made the decision to implement the IGY world survey. Over two billion dollars in funding and the cooperation of 60,000 scientists from 67 nations participated in this NSC project. American military participation in the IGY survey was extensive. To this day information obtained on the UFO phenomenon by the IGY world survey has been concealed.
The timing of the IGY world survey and the massive funding to support the survey by the National Security Council is a substantial clue linking nuclear testing and UFO manifestations. The undertaking's secret motive was to establish the location of another technological presence on the earth. In retrospect it can be seen, national security planners used the thirteen nuclear detonations of 1956 to induce the phenomenon to appear. The thirteen nuclear detonations of 1956 were the largest number of atomic detonations at the Bikini site than any other series of tests. The 13 explosions at the Bikini atomic test site set the bait to induce the phenomenon to appear and IGY was the trap to identify and isolate specific geographical locations from where the phenomenon first appeared.
By the time of the starting date of the project, July 1957, the world was wired with instrumentation manned by military and scientific teams that numbered more than 60,000 personal. The National Security Council Operations Coordinating Board managed the navy IGY scientific assault on the mysterious South Pole. This worldwide army of scientists armed and ready with scientific instrumentation of every nature was dug-in and ready to monitor events as the predictable increase in UFO sightings occurred.
In the first week in November 1957, the predicted UFO wave began. As sightings occurred worldwide, the greatest number of sightings seemed to concentrate in the United States, Brazil, and Japan. In terms of numbers the UFO wave of 1957 produced more UFO sightings than any other UFO wave. At this unique period of time the CIA established "The Director of Central Intelligence Committee on Overhead Reconnaissance". Years later this committee evolved into the very spooky National Reconnaissance Office. The NRO's focus is planet earth.
Public exposure to IGY was limited to the search and study of scientific curiosities such as airglow, the aurora, atmospheric whistlers, and ionospheric radio skip. Data was collected worldwide on solar activity, meteorology, cosmic rays, earth magnetism, artificial satellites, nuclear radiation, seismology, gravity, glaciology, oceanography, ionospheric studies, and a host of other scientific disciplines. The National Security Council with the help of the National Academy of Scientists, the National Science Foundation, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff purposely precluded the American people from obtaining a clear view of the UFO reality. The International Geophysical Year scientific world survey was the greatest scientific swindle in recorded history.
Dr. J. Allen Hynek complained years later that UFOs photographed by the worldwide optical tracking network of IGY were ignored by the Air Force. Retrograde satellites observed by IGY "moon watch" teams (retrograde orbits were unobtainable by American rocketry) were viewed as insignificant in importance. As an astronomer Dr. J. Allen Hynek could not accept the theory that UFOs were of extraterrestrial origin because of the great distances between stars and the staggering amount of statistical data on UFOs accumulated during human history. This left Dr. Hynek with one logical choice for the origin of the UFO phenomenon. UFOs were the manifestation of "a unique natural phenomenonö that somehow had remained unperceived by the collective body of human experience."
At the time this great man of ufology made this statement publicly in 1967, in a talk at the Goddard Space Flight Center, the seeds of extraterrestrialism had grown to such an extent that his audience was blind to the concept he tried to bring forth. Hynek's concept of "a unique natural phenomenon" that was responsible for the observed UFO sightings was viewed with suspicion and many scientists felt Hynek's explanations were a continuation of the governments program to explain away and ignore the reported phenomenon. The impact of Hynek's insight fell victim to the extraterrestrial hypothesis.  This address to the rocket scientists at the Goddard Space Flight Center in its entirety has disappeared and is not available to researchers.
During the 1957 International Geophysical Year scientific world survey Brazilian scientist Dr. Villela aboard a US Navy icebreaker in Admiralty Bay, Antarctica witnessed a silvery bullet like object break out of 37 feet of ice and then fly into the sky and rapidly disappear. Two other witnesses who caught only the tail end of the event observed great blocks of ice fall back from the sky and the impressive hole blasted from the ice sheet by this UFO. This incredible report indicates to researchers that UFOs have a thrust to weight ratio substantially greater than that of an icebreaker. The report was issued formally to the Brazilian press by the Navy but soon after all press coverage of this incredible incident disappeared. This one report validates Paul R. Hill's concept of the UFO being a substantial multiphibious flying machine.
An extraordinary series of UFO photographs was taken January 1958 by the ship NE "Almirante Saldanha" of the Brazilian IGY effort. Off Trindad Island in the Atlantic a Saturn shaped UFO came in from the sea and circled a radar base on that island. The ship's photographer snapped four photographs. IGY scientists found the photographs to be insignificant in importance. This same Saturn shaped object later appeared on MERINT radiotelegraph procedure posters, issued by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, for instructing naval vessels the procedure for reporting UFOs.
Objects some 70 miles high in near earth orbit were observed by the Bluff Hill radar facility in Invercargill, N.Z. during the IGY effort. New Zealand IGY scientists lost interest in this extraordinary data. Objects orbiting the earth 70 miles in altitude was not considered relevant to IGY scientists for further investigation. The projects military and scientific managers ignored all UFO activity worldwide recorded during the IGY world survey, which was substantial. The evidence indicates the International Geophysical Year scientific world survey was a front, in the same way project "Blue Book" was a front, to defraud Americans from obtaining a grasp on understanding the true nature of a phenomenon that has been witnessed historically.
The IGY scientific world survey assuredly provided answers to the primary National Security Council question, where on earth were UFOs from. The UFO presence in the Americas precedes the discovery of the Americas by the first European explorers. UFOs were a natural phenomenon observed in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In Argentina UFO researchers knew UFOs entered the Atlantic and Pacific oceans from Antarctica.
Recent reports by UFO researchers suggest there is an on going Navy effort to destroy any evidence linking the navy to the UFO phenomenon. The reports of UFO sightings being edited out of ship's logs, by UFO researchers, confirms a considerable naval sensitivity to the phenomenon. Researchers have also reported the naval archives in Seacaus, New Jersey appear to have been purposely sabotaged. Documents are missing and files have purposely been mixed chronologically thwarting researchers attempts to do meaningful research at this facility relating to the UFO phenomenon.
Home Sweet Home
The National Security Act of September 1947 created within the nation's legal framework agencies to deal with the reality of the UFO phenomenon. State security planners were quick to recognize that the phenomenon was not a direct threat to the nation's security, this viewpoint is expressed in the earliest intelligence documents from 1947. The greatest threat came from the potential impact of the UFO reality on the nation's current belief system. If the true nature of the phenomenon became widely known by the American people the current belief system could suffer from a backlash that could lead to political instability.
The military was regrettably chosen to be the repository of this new perception in the nation's reality. The national security act of 1947 literally created a secret government. This secret government has waged a secret war to block the phenomenon's reality from seeping into the nation's belief system. The National Security Council the nation's highest policy making body is the agency responsible for the UFO cover-up.
The NSC is divided into members and advisors. It is the advisory part of the National Security Council that manages the UFO cover-up. This includes the Assistant for National Security Affairs, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Ad Hoc committees such as the National Security Council Planning Board and the National Security Council Operations Coordinating Board. Should the President and Vice President ever have a need to know of the UFO reality the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs is positioned to brief them at the appropriate time and initiate secret FEMA directives.
From Shalett's UFO denial, to Ginna's UFO extraterrestrialism, National Security Council policy continues. The Air Force sponsored Condon UFO investigation the "Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects" found again in 1969 that UFOs did not exist. UFOs really were not from "space" after all, according to Condon, UFOs simply did not exist! Dr. Edward U. Condon certainly was an excellent choice by the National Security Council to head the Air Force study. At the time in 1946, when the phenomenon was observed in large numbers after the atomic testing at Bikini Atoll Dr. Condon was the head of the National Bureau of Standards America's scientific clearinghouse.
The National Bureau of Standards interest in the UFO phenomenon along with the Army Signal Corps, the Department of the Navy, and the State Department can be traced back to the 1920Æs. There is a high probability the National Bureau of Standards coordinated the scientific study of the reported UFO crash at Roswell, N.M. in 1947. While UFOs are relativity new in American thinking, government involvement in the research of this enigmatic phenomenon is over a hundred years old.
If in fact mankind is cohabiting the Earth with a greater non-human intelligence that either evolved or migrated to earth long ago in the distant Geohistorical past then present human institutions are in default. The impact of this knowledge should it filter into common thinking, is best described by the agency that evolved from the Navy's OP-20-GX group of the 1920s, the National Security Agency "....public interest in disclosure (FOIA queries on UFOs) is far outweighed by the sensitive nature of the materials and the obvious effect on national security their release may well entail".  This statement by the National Security Agency acknowledges that the agency has a much more broadened picture of how the phenomenon's disclosure would impact national security and clearly indicates the agencies participation in the UFO cover-up. The National Security Agency was created soon after 24 UFO overflights of the White House during May, June, July, and August 1952.
The atomic age, the appearance of flying saucers in large numbers, and the birth of the National Security Council are not random events, all occurred within a very short period of time. The relationship of cause and effect is clearly demonstrated by the passing of the National Security Act three months after the thunderous blow to American reality by the UFO crash in Roswell, N.M. in July 1947. Until the atomic age the intelligence behind the UFO has historically shied away and distanced itself from human perception.
A peek into the mind of government relating to the UFO phenomenon and the processes at work on the community of nations is best described by Dr. Pierre Guerin an astronomer associated with the French GEPAN (Study Group Into Unidentified Atmospheric Phenomenon). Dr. Guerin feels there is an intelligence behind the UFO phenomenon and it is not human. Governments of earth understand that this intelligence coexists on the planet with humanity. There is a very high possibility that this intelligence is responsible for the creation of humanity. The impact of this truth on the world community if it became widely known would undermine the ability of the nations of Earth to maintain geopolitical order. Dr. Pierre Guerin's reflections if true, compromise humanities evolutionary and historical self-perception and undermines all major human institutions worldwide. Dr. Guerin's views give us insight to the common denominator that allowed a worldwide cover-up of the UFO phenomenon's reality to evolve and the reasons for the continued maintenance of this policy.
Former CIA official Victor Marchetti spelled out indirectly in 1979 everything the American people needed to know about the UFO phenomenon. His reflections are not far distanced from what Dr. Pierre Guerin described as the reason for the coveup. According to Marchetti, "We have, indeed, been contacted......and the U.S. government, in collusion with other national powers of the Earth, is determined to keep this information from the general public..."
"The purpose of the international conspiracy is to maintain a workable stability among the nations of the world and for them, in turn, to retain institutional control over their respective populations. Thus, for these governments to admit that there are beings from outerspace... with mentalities and technological capabilities obviously far superior to ours, could, once fully perceived by the average person, erode the foundations of the earth's traditional power structure. Political and legal systems, religions, economic and social institutions could all become meaningless in the mind of the public. The national oligarchical establishments, even civilization as we now know it, could collapse into anarchy..." "Such extreme conclusions are not necessarily valid, but they probably accurately reflect the fears of the 'ruling class' of the major nations, whose leaders (particularly those in the intelligence business) have always advocated excessive governmental secrecy as being necessary to preserve "national security."
It was not until the 19th century did people correctly interpret the meaning of the fossil record and become aware of the fact that dinosaurs actually inhabited the earth millions of years in the past. Secret CIA records obtained through the freedom of information act reveal that CIA analysts were able to determine from Neanderthal petroglyphs that the UFO phenomenon's presence dates back at least 50,000 years in human history.  It seems highly unlikely that the oldest record of UFO manifestations observed in Neanderthal petroglyphs represents the beginning of the phenomenon's appearance on Earth. UFOs can be interpreted as a "fossil" like record of a technology that represents an older non human intelligence here on earth.
In a unique international cooperation among the world's nations, as evidenced by IGY, the phenomenon's reality is aggressively prohibited from entering the public domain. This intelligence operates high technology multiphibious aerial machinery equivalent to a flying submarine. This earth intelligence routinely investigates human activity. The phenomenon's appearance in the art record is extensive. This is evidenced in petroglyfs, frescos, early enameled paintings, literary accounts, and photography from 50,000 BC to modern time.
The true reasons why the phenomenon's reality is continually denied by science, art, the humanities, the military, government, and religious institutions worldwide can now be viewed in a new light. It appears both the earth's governments and the intelligence responsible for the observed UFO phenomenon, find exposure of the phenomenon's reality to humanities self-concept mutually threatening. A "secret war" has developed between the world's political institutions and a native non-human earth intelligence. The continued concealment of this relationship in time should prove to have unimaginable consequence for coming generations.
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29. Fawcett, Lawrence., Greenwood, Barry J., "The UFO Cover-Up', 1984, Simon and Schuster