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Why is Marijuana Illegal?

A brief history of the criminalization of cannabis

Many people assume that marijuana was made illegal through some kind of process involving scientific, medical, and government hearings; that it was to protect the citizens from what was determined to be a dangerous drug.

The actual story shows a much different picture. Those who voted on the legal fate of this plant never had the facts, but were dependent on information supplied by those who had a specific agenda to deceive lawmakers. You'll see below that the very first federal vote to prohibit marijuana was based entirely on a documented lie on the floor of the Senate.

You'll also see that the history of marijuana's criminalization is filled with:

·       Racism

·       Fear

·       Protection of Corporate Profits

·       Yellow Journalism

·       Ignorant, Incompetent, and/or Corrupt Legislators

·       Personal Career Advancement and Greed


These are the actual reasons marijuana is illegal.



 Background


For most of human history, marijuana has been completely legal. It's not a recently discovered plant, nor is it a long-standing law. Marijuana has been illegal for less than 1% of the time that it's been in use. Its known uses go back further than 7,000 B.C. and it was legal as recently as when Ronald Reagan was a boy.

The marijuana (hemp) plant, of course, has an incredible number of uses. The earliest known woven fabric was apparently of hemp, and over the centuries the plant was used for food, incense, cloth, rope, and much more. This adds to some of the confusion over its introduction in the United States, as the plant was well known from the early 1600's, but did not reach public awareness as a recreational drug until the early 1900's.

America's first marijuana law was enacted at Jamestown Colony, Virginia in 1619. It was a law "ordering" all farmers to grow Indian hempseed. There were several other "must grow" laws over the next 200 years (you could be jailed for not growing hemp during times of shortage in Virginia between 1763 and 1767), and during most of that time, hemp was legal tender (you could even pay your taxes with hemp -- try that today!) Hemp was such a critical crop for a number of purposes (including essential war requirements - rope, etc.) that the government went out of its way to encourage growth.

The United States Census of 1850 counted 8,327 hemp "plantations" (minimum 2,000-acre farm) growing cannabis hemp for cloth, canvas and even the cordage used for baling cotton.


The Mexican Connection

In the early 1900s, the western states developed significant tensions regarding the influx of Mexican-Americans. The revolution in Mexico in 1910 spilled over the border, with General Pershing's army clashing with bandit Pancho Villa. Later in that decade, bad feelings developed between the small farmer and the large farms that used cheaper Mexican labor. Then, the depression came and increased tensions, as jobs and welfare resources became scarce.

One of the "differences" seized upon during this time was the fact that many Mexicans smoked marijuana and had brought the plant with them.

However, the first state law outlawing marijuana did so not because of Mexicans using the drug. Oddly enough, it was because of Mormons using it. Mormons who traveled to Mexico in 1910 came back to Salt Lake City with marijuana. The church was not pleased and ruled against use of the drug. Since the state of Utah automatically enshrined church doctrine into law, the first state marijuana prohibition was established in 1915. (Today, Senator Orrin Hatch serves as the prohibition arm of this heavily church-influenced state.)

Other states quickly followed suit with marijuana prohibition laws, including Wyoming (1915), Texas (1919), Iowa (1923), Nevada (1923), Oregon (1923), Washington (1923), Arkansas (1923), and Nebraska (1927). These laws tended to be specifically targeted against the Mexican-American population.

When Montana outlawed marijuana in 1927, the Butte Montana Standard reported a legislator's comment: "When some beet field peon takes a few traces of this stuff... he thinks he has just been elected president of Mexico, so he starts out to execute all his political enemies." In Texas, a senator said on the floor of the Senate: "All Mexicans are crazy, and this stuff [marijuana] is what makes them crazy."


Jazz and Assassins

In the eastern states, the "problem" was attributed to a combination of Latin Americans and black jazz musicians. Marijuana and jazz traveled from New Orleans to Chicago, and then to Harlem, where marijuana became an indispensable part of the music scene, even entering the language of the black hits of the time (Louis Armstrong's "Muggles", Cab Calloway's "That Funny Reefer Man", Fats Waller's "Viper's Drag").

 

Again, racism was part of the charge against marijuana, as newspapers in 1934 editorialized: "Marihuana influences Negroes to look at white people in the eye, step on white men's shadows and look at a white woman twice."


Two other fear-tactic rumors started to spread: one, that Mexicans, Blacks and other foreigners were snaring white children with marijuana; and two, the story of the "assassins." Early stories of Marco Polo had told of "hasheesh-eaters" or hashashin, from which derived the term "assassin." In the original stories, these professional killers were given large doses of hashish and brought to the ruler's garden (to give them a glimpse of the paradise that awaited them upon successful completion of their mission). Then, after the effects of the drug disappeared, the assassin would fulfill his ruler's wishes with cool, calculating loyalty.


By the 1930s, the story had changed. Dr. A. E. Fossier wrote in the 1931 New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal: "Under the influence of hashish those fanatics would madly rush at their enemies, and ruthlessly massacre every one within their grasp." Within a very short time, marijuana started being linked to violent behavior.


Alcohol Prohibition and Federal Approaches to Drug Prohibition


During this time, the United States was also dealing with alcohol prohibition, which lasted from 1919 to 1933. Alcohol prohibition was extremely visible and debated at all levels, while drug laws were passed without the general public's knowledge. National alcohol prohibition happened through the mechanism of an amendment to the constitution.


Earlier (1914), the Harrison Act was passed, which provided federal tax penalties for opiates and cocaine.


The federal approach is important. It was considered at the time that the federal government did not have the constitutional power to outlaw alcohol or drugs. It is because of this that alcohol prohibition required a constitutional amendment.


At that time in our country's history, the judiciary regularly placed the tenth amendment in the path of congressional regulation of "local" affairs, and direct regulation of medical practice was considered beyond congressional power under the commerce clause (since then, both provisions have been weakened so far as to have almost no meaning).


Since drugs could not be outlawed at the federal level, the decision was made to use federal taxes as a way around the restriction. In the Harrison Act, legal uses of opiates and cocaine were taxed (supposedly as a revenue need by the federal government, which is the only way it would hold up in the courts), and those who didn't follow the law found themselves in trouble with the treasury department.

 

In 1930, a new division in the Treasury Department was established -- the Federal Bureau of Narcotics -- and Harry J. Anslinger was named director. This, if anything, marked the beginning of the all-out war against marijuana.


 Harry J. Anslinger


Anslinger was an extremely ambitious man, and he recognized the Bureau of Narcotics as an amazing career opportunity -- a new government agency with the opportunity to define both the problem and the solution. He immediately realized that opiates and cocaine wouldn't be enough to help build his agency, so he latched on to marijuana and started to work on making it illegal at the federal level.


Anslinger immediately drew upon the themes of racism and violence to draw national attention to the problem he wanted to create. Some of his quotes regarding marijuana...

"There are 100,000 total marijuana smokers in the US, and most are Negroes, Hispanics, Filipinos, and entertainers. Their Satanic music, jazz, and swing, result from marijuana use. This marijuana causes white women to seek sexual relations with Negroes, entertainers, and any others."

"...the primary reason to outlaw marijuana is its effect on the degenerate races."

"Marijuana is an addictive drug which produces in its users insanity, criminality, and death."

"Reefer makes darkies think they're as good as white men."

"Marihuana leads to pacifism and communist brainwashing"

"You smoke a joint and you're likely to kill your brother."

"Marijuana is the most violence-causing drug in the history of mankind."

And he loved to pull out his own version of the "assassin" definition:

"In the year 1090, there was founded in Persia the religious and military order of the Assassins, whose history is one of cruelty, barbarity, and murder, and for good reason: the members were confirmed users of hashish, or marihuana, and it is from the Arabs' 'hashashin' that we have the English word 'assassin.'"

 Yellow Journalism


Harry Anslinger got some additional help from William Randolf Hearst, owner of a huge chain of newspapers. Hearst had lots of reasons to help. First, he hated Mexicans. Second, he had invested heavily in the timber industry to support his newspaper chain and didn't want to see the development of hemp paper in competition. Third, he had lost 800,000 acres of timberland to Pancho Villa, so he hated Mexicans. Fourth, telling lurid lies about Mexicans (and the devil marijuana weed causing violence) sold newspapers, making him rich.


Some samples from the San Francisco Examiner:

"Marihuana makes fiends of boys in thirty days -- Hashish goads users to bloodlust."

"By the tons it is coming into this country -- the deadly, dreadful poison that racks and tears not only the body, but the very heart and soul of every human being who once becomes a slave to it in any of its cruel and devastating forms.... Marihuana is a short cut to the insane asylum. Smoke marihuana cigarettes for a month and what was once your brain will be nothing but a storehouse of horrid specters. Hasheesh makes a murderer who kills for the love of killing out of the mildest mannered man who ever laughed at the idea that any habit could ever get him...."

And other nationwide columns...

"Users of marijuana become STIMULATED as they inhale the drug and are LIKELY TO DO ANYTHING. Most crimes of violence in this section, especially in country districts are laid to users of that drug."

"Was it marijuana, the new Mexican drug, that nerved the murderous arm of Clara Phillips when she hammered out her victim's life in Los Angeles?... THREE-FOURTHS OF THE CRIMES of violence in this country today are committed by DOPE SLAVES -- that is a matter of cold record."

Hearst and Anslinger were then supported by Dupont chemical company and various pharmaceutical companies in the effort to outlaw cannabis. Dupont had patented nylon, and wanted hemp removed as competition. The pharmaceutical companies could neither identify nor standardize cannabis dosages, and besides, with cannabis, folks could grow their own medicine and not have to purchase it from large companies.


This all set the stage for...


The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937.


After two years of secret planning, Anslinger brought his plan to Congress -- complete with a scrapbook full of sensational Hearst editorials, stories of axe murderers who had supposedly smoked marijuana, and racial slurs.


It was a remarkably short set of hearings.


The one fly in Anslinger's ointment was the appearance by Dr. William C. Woodward, Legislative Council of the American Medical Association.


Woodward started by slamming Harry Anslinger and the Bureau of Narcotics for distorting earlier AMA statements that had nothing to do with marijuana and making them appear to be AMA endorsement for Anslinger's view.


He also reproached the legislature and the Bureau for using the term marijuana in the legislation and not publicizing it as a bill about cannabis or hemp. At this point, marijuana (or marihuana) was a sensationalist word used to refer to Mexicans smoking a drug and had not been connected in most people's minds to the existing cannabis/hemp plant. Thus, many who had legitimate reasons to oppose the bill weren't even aware of it.


Woodward went on to state that the AMA was opposed to the legislation and further questioned the approach of the hearings, coming close to outright accusation of misconduct by Anslinger and the committee:

"That there is a certain amount of narcotic addiction of an objectionable character no one will deny. The newspapers have called attention to it so prominently that there must be some grounds for [their] statements [even Woodward was partially taken in by Hearst's propaganda]. It has surprised me, however, that the facts on which these statements have been based have not been brought before this committee by competent primary evidence. We are referred to newspaper publications concerning the prevalence of marihuana addiction. We are told that the use of marihuana causes crime.

But yet no one has been produced from the Bureau of Prisons to show the number of prisoners who have been found addicted to the marihuana habit. An informed inquiry shows that the Bureau of Prisons has no evidence on that point.

You have been told that school children are great users of marihuana cigarettes. No one has been summoned from the Children's Bureau to show the nature and extent of the habit, among children.

Inquiry of the Children's Bureau shows that they have had no occasion to investigate it and know nothing particularly of it.

Inquiry of the Office of Education--- and they certainly should know something of the prevalence of the habit among the school children of the country, if there is a prevalent habit--- indicates that they have had no occasion to investigate and know nothing of it.

Moreover, there is in the Treasury Department itself, the Public Health Service, with its Division of Mental Hygiene. The Division of Mental Hygiene was, in the first place, the Division of Narcotics. It was converted into the Division of Mental Hygiene, I think, about 1930. That particular Bureau has control at the present time of the narcotics farms that were created about 1929 or 1930 and came into operation a few years later. No one has been summoned from that Bureau to give evidence on that point.

Informal inquiry by me indicates that they have had no record of any marihuana of Cannabis addicts who have ever been committed to those farms.

The bureau of Public Health Service has also a division of pharmacology. If you desire evidence as to the pharmacology of Cannabis, that obviously is the place where you can get direct and primary evidence, rather than the indirect hearsay evidence."

Committee members then proceeded to attack Dr. Woodward, questioning his motives in opposing the legislation. Even the Chairman joined in:

The Chairman: If you want to advise us on legislation, you ought to come here with some constructive proposals, rather than criticism, rather than trying to throw obstacles in the way of something that the Federal Government is trying to do. It has not only an unselfish motive in this, but they have a serious responsibility.

Dr. Woodward: We cannot understand yet, Mr. Chairman, why this bill should have been prepared in secret for 2 years without any intimation, even, to the profession, that it was being prepared.

After some further bantering...

The Chairman: I would like to read a quotation from a recent editorial in the Washington Times:

The marihuana cigarette is one of the most insidious of all forms of dope, largely because of the failure of the public to understand its fatal qualities.

The Nation is almost defenseless against it, having no Federal laws to cope with it and virtually no organized campaign for combating it.

The result is tragic.

School children are the prey of peddlers who infest school neighbourhoods.

High school boys and girls buy the destructive weed without knowledge of its capacity of harm, and conscienceless dealers sell it with impunity.

This is a national problem, and it must have national attention.

The fatal marihuana cigarette must be recognized as a deadly drug, and American children must be protected against it.

That is a pretty severe indictment. They say it is a national question and that it requires effective legislation. Of course, in a general way, you have responded to all of these statements; but that indicates very clearly that it is an evil of such magnitude that it is recognized by the press of the country as such.

And that was basically it. Yellow journalism won over medical science.


The committee passed the legislation on. And on the floor of the house, the entire discussion was:

Member from upstate New York: "Mr. Speaker, what is this bill about?"

Speaker Rayburn: "I don't know. It has something to do with a thing called marihuana. I think it's a narcotic of some kind."

"Mr. Speaker, does the American Medical Association support this bill?"

Member on the committee jumps up and says: "Their Doctor Wentworth[sic] came down here. They support this bill 100 percent."

And on the basis of that lie, on August 2, 1937, marijuana became illegal at the federal level.


The entire coverage in the New York Times: "President Roosevelt signed today a bill to curb traffic in the narcotic, marihuana, through heavy taxes on transactions."


Anslinger as precursor to the Drug Czars


Anslinger was essentially the first Drug Czar. Even though the term didn't exist until William Bennett's position as director of the White House Office of National Drug Policy, Anslinger acted in a similar fashion. In fact, there are some amazing parallels between Anslinger and the current Drug Czar John Walters. Both had kind of a carte blanche to go around demonizing drugs and drug users. Both had resources and a large public podium for their voice to be heard and to promote their personal agenda. Both lied constantly, often when it was unnecessary.

Both were racists. Both had the ear of lawmakers, and both realized that they could persuade legislators and others based on lies, particularly if they could co-opt the media into squelching or downplaying any opposition views.


Anslinger even had the ability to circumvent the First Amendment. He banned the Canadian movie "Drug Addict," a 1946 documentary that realistically depicted the drug addicts and law enforcement efforts. He even tried to get Canada to ban the movie in their own country, or failing that, to prevent U.S. citizens from seeing the movie in Canada. Canada refused. (Today, Drug Czar John Walters is trying to bully Canada into keeping harsh marijuana laws.)


Anslinger had 37 years to solidify the propaganda and stifle opposition. The lies continued the entire time (although the stories would adjust -- the 21 year old Florida boy who killed his family of five got younger each time he told it). In 1961, he looked back at his efforts:

"Much of the most irrational juvenile violence and that has written a new chapter of shame and tragedy is traceable directly to this hemp intoxication. A gang of boys tear the clothes from two school girls and rape the screaming girls, one boy after the other. A sixteen-year-old kills his entire family of five in Florida, a man in Minnesota puts a bullet through the head of a stranger on the road; in Colorado husband tries to shoot his wife, kills her grandmother instead and then kills himself. Every one of these crimes had been proceeded [sic] by the smoking of one or more marijuana "reefers." As the marijuana situation grew worse, I knew action had to be taken to get the proper legislation passed. By 1937 under my direction, the Bureau launched two important steps First, a legislative plan to seek from Congress a new law that would place marijuana and its distribution directly under federal control. Second, on radio and at major forums, such that presented annually by the New York Herald Tribune, I told the story of this evil weed of the fields and river beds and roadsides. I wrote articles for magazines; our agents gave hundreds of lectures to parents, educators, social and civic leaders. In network broadcasts I reported on the growing list of crimes, including murder and rape. I described the nature of marijuana and its close kinship to hashish. I continued to hammer at the facts.

I believe we did a thorough job, for the public was alerted and the laws to protect them were passed, both nationally and at the state level. We also brought under control the wild growing marijuana in this country. Working with local authorities, we cleaned up hundreds of acres of marijuana and we uprooted plants sprouting along the roadsides."

After Anslinger


On a break from college in the 70s, I was visiting a church in rural Illinois. There in the literature racks in the back of the church was a lurid pamphlet about the evils of marijuana -- all the old reefer madness propaganda about how it caused insanity and murder. I approached the minister and said "You can't have this in your church. It's all lies, and the church shouldn't be about promoting lies." Fortunately, my dad believed me, and he had the material removed. He didn't even know how it got there. But without me speaking up, neither he nor the other members of the church had any reason NOT to believe what the pamphlet said. The propaganda machine had been that effective.

The story since then has been a continual litany of:

·       Politicians wanting to appear tough on crime and passing tougher penalties

·       Constant increases in spending on law enforcement and prisons

·       Racist application of drug laws

·       Taxpayer funded propaganda

·       Stifling of opposition speech

·       Political contributions from corporations that profit from marijuana being illegal (pharmaceuticals, alcohol, etc.)

 

 

 


A Chronology of Nazi Infiltration and the War On Some Drugs


1820 — Rothschilds established as the leading bank in

Europe. Bankers who allied themselves with the Rothschilds, and those who supported the Masonic order, found themselves well off. Those who didn't had a rough way to go.


1840 — During an attempt at alcohol prohibition, then-attorney Abraham Lincoln states: "Prohibition makes a crime out of things that are not crimes ... A prohibition law strikes a blow at the very principles upon which our government was founded."

1842 — Cannabis makes up about half of all medicines sold in America. No one reports serious problems with use.

 

1850 — Cannabis prescribed as the prime medicine for more than 100 separate illnesses or diseases in U.S. Pharmacopoeia.

 

1865 — Northern Industrialists win War Between the States. Now have power base over agricultural South, influences westward expansion of U.S, location of railroads. Mary Todd Lincoln prescribed Cannabis for the nervous breakdown she suffered following husband (President) Lincoln's assassination.

 

1875 — California, in a blatant act of racism, bans Opium smoking by Chinese. Large, well-run opium houses ran out of business, replaced by smaller, less reputable houses. Usage increases.

 

1876 — Turkish Hashish exhibition at Philadelphia's Centennial Exhibition was most popular. Fairgoers encouraged to return again and again to "enhance" their enjoyment of the fair.

 

1883 — First Federal law against drugs. Congress heavily taxed smoking Opium. First time taxation was used to legislate morality, instead of raise revenues. Controlled by Treasury Department

 

1884 — Supreme Court decision making corporations artificial persons. Gives corporations 14th amendment protections.

 

1888 — Using 1883 Opium taxation law as precedent, Federal government banned certain types of Opium from being imported, and banned Chinese from importing Opium at all. Government now surrenders revenue raising in favor of controlling "morality."

 

1890 — Standard Oil of Ohio is refining 90% of America's oil, thanks to Rothschild financing.

 

1894 — Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report released to British. Study done in India. Judged the physical, mental, moral effects of smoking Cannabis, urges against any prohibition based on "no appreciable physical injury of any kind, ... no injurious effects on the mind, ... (and) no moral injury whatever."

 

1895 — Rothschilds begin to finance American business.They do so primarily through the Warburgs of Germany who were partners of Kuhn, Loeb and Company of New York. Both Warburgs and Kuhn/Loeb would be principals of Federal Reserve Board. Rothschilds would finance Rockefeller's Standard Oil, Carnegie Steel, and the Harriman Railroad system.

 

1896 — McKinley elected president. Marcus Alonzo Hannah from Standard Oil of Ohio raised 16 Million dollars for campaign, otherwise unheard of until 1960's.

 

1898 — Spanish American war starts, with William Randolph Hearst's "Yellow Journalism" fueling the fires. Hearst begins his long campaign of racism against Hispanics, Orientals, and Africans, and the things they do in their cultures.

 

1900 — Mellon bank, 6th largest in America, finances very successful oil "gusher" in Spindletop, Texas. Eli Lilly and Parke Davis, in a joint venture, develops strain of Cannabis called Cannabis Americana." Strain is a very potent Cannabis Indica, to be used in their medicines.


1906 Pure Food and Drug Act (Wiley Act) passed. Opens door for government intervention into food and medicine production.

 

1911 — Standard Oil of New Jersey found in violation of Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Forced to diversify, though all companies they split into, John D. Rockefeller had at least 25% of stock. Therefore, spirit of Sherman Anti-Trust violated.

 

1912 — Wiley Act amended, giving government right to determine if a substance is "harmful."

 

1913 — Formation of Federal Reserve Board, a private organization, which began the practice of dictating monetary policy to government (in direct violation of U.S. Constitution). Federal Reserve Act was also called the Aldrich bill, after its prime sponsor Nelson Aldrich, the maternal grandfather of Nelson and David Rockefeller. One of the provisions for passage of the act was the identities of the class A stockholders of the Fed not be revealed. According to R.E. McMaster, publisher of a financial newsletter "The Reaper," the top eight stock-holders are the Rothschild banks of London and Berlin, Lazard Brothers banks of Paris, Israel Moses Seif Banks of Italy, Warburg Bank of Hamburg and Amsterdam, Lehman Brothers Bank of New York, Kuhn Loeb Bank of New York, Chase Manhattan of New York, and Goldman, Sachs Bank of New York. These banks own the Fed through about 300 stock-holders, with a lot of interlocking directorships and intermarriages. Aldrich Act voted down, but the same bill, with some slight modifications, was reintroduced just before Christmas, when many congressmen would have already left Washington. The Owens-Glass Bill passed into law on December 23rd. Act is unconstitutional Acceptance of Income Tax act by government (never legally voted into law). National Association of Manufacturers was exposed, through a series of articles in the New York World, as being involved in bribery of congressmen, other corruptions including union busting and violence against workers. Known to be Fascist. Mellon bank buys out Gulf Oil, opens first drive up gas station in Pittsburgh. Pancho Villa, Mexican freedom fighter, recovers 800,000 acres of Sonora, Mexico timberland bought for pennies on the dollar of value by William Randolph Hearst. Villa and his men are great smokers of "Canamo" (Cannabis). Hearst, in retaliation, starts slur campaign against Cannabis, using Mexican slang word "Marihuana," and claiming it causes Mexicans to be lazy and thieving. By 1920 Hearst applied Cannabis to Blacks, claiming that after smoking it, Black men were insolent and wanted to rape white women.

 

1914 — Passage of Harrison Anti-Narcotics act, requiring taxation and permits to sell "narcotics." Initial enforcement involved arresting doctors who still prescribed Opiates. Six months later, "American Medicine" magazine editorializes that since passage, narcotics use has risen with sinister consequences resulting from the character of places addicts needed to go to procure drugs, and the people they had to associate with. The news media of the day continues to mis-report drug issues. The New York Times says Cannabis has "Practically the same effect as morphine and cocaine." WWI starts in Europe, with assassi-nation of Arch-duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo.

 

1916 USDA issues bulletin 404, urging the use of Hemp paper. Department issues a dire warning about the dangers of using wood pulp paper: "Our forests are being cut three times as fast as they grow ... it is advisable to investigate the paper-making value of the more promising plant materials before a critical situation arises." Since Hemp produces over four times more paper per acre than trees, without the need for hazardous chemicals such as sulfuric acid and dioxins, USDA urges more use of Hemp for paper.

 

1917 — America enters WWI, duPont supplies 40% of gunpowder. Bolshevik revolution in Russia creates "communist state." U.S. Military is used for the first time to suppress anti-war dissidents by using overt police-type actions, and covert surveillance of dissidents. This led to the establishment of the Military Intelligence Division (MID). The Military saw two missions: 1. Prevent troop disaffection, and 2. protect national resources and morale that might affect military actions afield. MID became involved with strike breaking and "slacker" raids." Slackers were those whose loyalty was questioned, or who found excuses not to join the military. "Disloyalty" eventually became "subversion." With the Bolsheviks gaining strength in preparation for the Russian revolution, the military intelligence community was born. It continued after the war to ensure the Communists did not take over this country. It also created an attitude of paranoia, fueled by an also growing fascist outlook of strict adherence to what has become known as the "National Party Line." Military intelligence joins forces for the first time with private sector detective agencies against German infiltration and,later, against Bolshevism. Many groups such as Pinkerton's, Burns, Wackenhut, and "service" organizations such as the American Legion, etc., share information with government agencies about Communist organizations, labor movement groups, and other dissidents. Industrial "defense" programs and seminars for weeding out radicals and other "undesirables" such as labor organizers were set up by the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) in conjunction with the FBI and the army. The American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS) provided "security" guidance for its members in addition to countersubversive propaganda.

 

1918 — Formation of Thule Society, the beginning of the Nazi party. Alcohol prohibition starts. It's likely that certain interests like duPont, Standard Oil, and others created alcohol bans to prevent production of non-petroleum fuels for the burgeoning automobile industry. duPont begins production of rayon, continues research into synthetics. Treaty of Versailles ends WWI. Austro-Hungarian empire splits up, causes Vatican to lose its buffer between Prussia and Orthodox Russia. Disaster for Vatican, politically. Secretary of Treasury reports underground drug trafficking flourishing, "dope peddlers" had established a nation-wide organization, smuggling was rampant, and use of forbidden substances was increasing.

 

1919 — Tea Pot Dome Oil Scandal, involving banker and soon-to-be Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, Who knew of illegal oil lease sales. Henry Ford makes anti-Semitic views known. American Legion formed in Paris to discourage WWI veterans from demanding their rights. Sterling Drug buys Bayer Aspirin, a German firm. Catholic Priest Eugenio Pacelli, who later becomes Pope Pius XII is terrorized by Bolsheviks. Leaves indelible anti-Communist prejudice. Alcohol prohibition begins, just as Ethanol is about to compete with petroleum. Hemp is most efficient of the biomass fuels. Mellon has a hand in it. Attorney General A. Mitchel Palmer convinces Congress more money is needed to fight Bolshevik radicals. Claimed radicals had picked July 4, 1919 as the day of revolution here. William J. Flynn launches new anti-radical program in August. Orders "a vigorous and comprehensive investigation of anarchistic and similar classes, Bolshevism and kindred agitations ... " 24-year-old J. Edgar Hoover put in charge of General Intelligence division of F.B.I. Mass raids held simultaneously in 12 American cities to round up and deport alien radicals; hundreds of Union of Russian Workers arrested. Only 43 of them could be deported. 200 others were added, deported in December. Bureau's main surveillance target was I.W.W., but it achieved its greatest success in the steel strike of 1919. Bureau consistently exaggerates the radical views of strike leaders and treats strikes as part of a planned revolutionary takeover.

 

1920 — Warren G. Harding elected president-Andrew Mellon appointed secretary of treasury. American companies such as Ford, GM, American I.G. (I.G. Farben), AT&T, ITT, duPont, General Aniline & film, others start trade agreements with Nazis (in 20's), including conspiracy to rearm Germany in violation of Versailles and Geneva Disarmament agreements, with the help of Herbert Hoover, then Secretary of Commerce. Nazi's 26-point plan for world domination accepted by party. Bayer Co. is re-linked to Germany, violating Versailles Treaty. Mellon pushes Oil Depletion Allowance Act through Congress. by Feb. Hoover has dossiers on over 70 thousand individuals including prominent liberals Jane Addams, and Fiorello LaGuardia. Newspapers, magazines, other publications scrutinized. Special projects set up for the Negro Press and the I.W.W. Another series of radical raids held in January. Up to 10,000 suspected radicals were arrested on blank warrants, held incommunicado, many subjected to extreme brutality. Hundreds held for long periods of time with no arrest warrants. Warrantless searches were common. Eventually all arrested were released. Hoover, Bureau and Justice department widely criticized for improper conduct, though nothing really became of it. J. Edgar Hoover claims in congressional committee testimony that 50% of all labor strikes are communist inspired ... a conclusion wholly unsupported by evidence. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) formed to fight rights violations. Bert Walker of W.A. Harriman & Co. arranged the credits needed for Harriman to take over the Hamburg-Amerika Line, central to Germany's transportation industry.

 

1921 — Tobacco cigarettes are banned in 14 states.

 

1922 — Benito Mussolini takes power in Italy, furthers Fascism. Pope Pius XI takes over. Tries more middle of the road approach to dealing with Soviet Union, but hopes for collapse of revolution so Vatican can regain power in Eastern Europe. Federal Narcotics Control Board formed. Military intelligence targets organizations like the International Workers, (IWW), World War Veterans, Communist Party, American Federation of Labor, and others for anti-subversion surveillance and action. Efforts are possibly influenced by the National Association of Manufacturers, a known fascist anti-labor organization. W. Avrell Harriman of the firm W.A. Harriman & Co. meets with Fritz Thyssen, German industrialist to discuss setting up a bank for Thyssen in America. By Personal agreement between Harriman and Thyssen, the plan for Union Banking Corp. Was agreed to. Sometime before 1924 a Thyssen representative, H.J. Kouwehnoven came to the United States for talks with Harriman. By 1924, Union Banking was a quiet part of W.A. Harriman & Co., who would be joint owner and manager of Thyssen's banking business outside of Germany.

 

1923 — Hitler told Chicago Tribune he wanted to send shock troops to help Ford run for President. German industry starts paying Hitler. Hitler receives first major money contribution from Fritz Thyssen, German industrialist. Hoover asked to consult with State Department on recognition of Soviet Union. Hoover said recognition should not be given because Soviets want change through violence. No recognition given to Russia. Albert Bailin, a former Justice dept. operative, former Burns Detective agency investigator, connected with a number of other agencies engaged in political and labor surveillance claimed Burns' agency was involved in provocations, thefts, and forgeries, including the purchase of a secret file of the Bureau's former boss, William Flynn. Bailin's story denounced by Burns as an attempt to frame him, and accused Bailin of being a Soviet agent. Burns had permitted the Bureau to engage in a variety of squalid practices, including using agents to frame critics of the Harding administration. The Bureau, under Burns, also acted as a secret police force for the corrupt Department of Justice. When Attorney General Harry Daughterty was forced to resign because of these charges. He blamed a "red plot" to hound him out of office.

 

1924 — Hitler on trial; testimony that Ford gave Hitler money. Heroin importation or manufacture was banned, despite its pain killing qualities that are superior to Morphine. Nevertheless, illegal use increases. William J. Burns (of Burns Detective agency), now Bureau Director, in appropriations committee testimony claims "the proof is very conclusive ... overwhelming that in all strikes in the United States, this radical propaganda enters into the situation. These radicals ... take advantage of the ordinary strikes that occur throughout the country, intensify them and create a great deal of trouble and disorder." Racial unrest was consistently, according to Burns, ascribed to alien agitators. Black "social activities," according to Burns, was considered a matter of "a general intelligence nature," along with radical and anarchistic activities. Bureau considered calls for labor organization among unskilled Blacks as especially sinister. Bureau finally reined in from intelligence gathering. New Attorney General Harlan F. Stone voiced fear that "a secret police may become a menace to free government and free institutions because it carries with it the possibility of abuses of power which are not always quickly apprehended or understood." Further says the Bureau is no longer interested in politics or other opinions of individuals, concerned only with their conduct and then only if that conduct violates the law. Hoover, Burns have to go along. Even with Bureau out of radical hunting picture, local and state and private groups take over, keeping "red scare" alive.

 

1926 — Herbert Hoover sets up Chemical Advisory Committees with Fraternity member. Irenee duPont speaks publicly about creating a race of supermen with drugs. The German Steel Trust is established by W.A. Harriman & Co. During WWII, the Trust, under the guidance of Thyssen, Prescott Bush and the Harriman's, produced 50.8% of Germany's pig iron, 35% of their explosives, as well as other steel products and materials used in the war. Dillon Read, a Wall Street banker and close friend of Prescott Bush's father Sam during WWI organized the Trust. Thyssen gave Reed at least two seats on the board of the Trust.

 

1927 — Ford issues "International Jew" book slamming Jews; Hitler admires book, has pile of them on his office table in Munich, Picture of Ford hanging in office. Enforcement of Wiley act moved from Bureau of Chemistry (USDA) to its own bureau, "Food, Drug and Insecticide Administration." Given further powers to ban "harmful additives." No real criteria established as to how to make a legitimate determination of what is harmful and what is not. Government has responsibility to prove substance is harmful.

 

1928 — duPont contributed major money to get Herbert Hoover elected president. duPont and Anaconda Copper subsidized campaign of Catholic liberal Al Smith.

 

1929 — "Great Depression" causes hundreds of suicides over financial losses. Andrew Mellon still with Treasury. Mellon meets with Montague Norman, head of bank of England before crash. American I.G. established, from I.G. Farben. Lateran treaty signed between Pope and Mussolini. Gives permanent recognition of state for Vatican, with Pope as head of state. Pius XI says: "No Catholic could be a genuine, convinced Fascist." Lateran treaty recognized Vatican as supra-national world morals organization. Ford Motor Company works on biomass fuels project, finding Hemp is most efficient. Plans to build car from plant material, especially Hemp. Military intelligence becomes entrenched as a counterrevolutionary force to fight "The menace" of Communism. Unrest during the depression caused a broadening of domestic intelligence gathering, especially in connection with the veterans march of 1932

 

1930 — Edsel Ford on board of American I.G. and General Aniline. Bank of International Settlements founded in Switzerland. Used as a money laundry, especially by Nazis. Board eventually controlled by Nazis. American banker Thomas Harrington McKittrick is President of B.I.S. Pope Pius XI gives up on Soviet Union collapsing,launches anti-Communist campaign. Bureau persuades Congress to authorize a special committee (Fish Committee) to investigate "Communist propaganda." Hoover read his pre-1924 intelligence reports, implying they were current. Also played on the racial unrest and prejudice theme. Hoover pressed for legislation to punish advocacy of the violent overthrow of the government, claiming words alone were grounds for punishment. Establishment considered propaganda dangerous and past protections of the First Amendment. Spoken word and written word thus became the new targets of domestic surveillance. Harry Anslinger, the nephew-in-law of Andrew Mellon, is appointed head of the newly-formed Bureau of Narcotics. Thyssen arranges credit for the Nazi party through Bank Voor Handel en Scheepvaart (BHS) which was the Dutch Brown Brothers Harriman affiliate.

 

1931 — Siler Commission report on soldier's use of Cannabis in Panama released. Indicates alcohol, not Cannabis causes problems. "Use of the drug (sic) is not widespread and ... its effects on military efficiency and upon discipline are not great. There appears to be no reason for renewing the penalties formerly exacted." Anslinger attends the first international narcotics conference, strikes up friendship with Baron Von Rheinbaben, head of the German delegation. Von Rheinbaben would become Hitler's head of German International Intelligence in Lisbon, Portugal during the war. Anslinger kept in touch with him saying Von Rheinbaben " ... Helped us out in several very delicate matters." W.A. Harriman & Co. Merges with Brown Brothers, the British-American investments house to become Brown Brothers Harriman. Bank of England Governor Montague Norman was a former Brown Brother's partner. Norman was known as perhaps Britain's greatest supporter of Hitler. Bush's partner in BBH was Thatcher Brown, a close friend of Norman's.

 

1932 — Bosses of GM poured $30 million in I.G. Farben plants. Reconstruction Finance Corporation created. Hitler forms Fraternity group to guarantee financing for the Gestapo. Hamburg-Amerika Line fosters anti-German government propaganda in favor of Hitler's Nazi Party. They oppose the government's attempt to disband Nazi private army. Founding Director of Union Banking and American Ship and Commerce Corp, and Executive Committee Chairman of Remington Arms works with Prescott Bush's firms in banking and trans-Atlantic shipping. Most of Nazi's weapons are produced in America. Weapons are transshipped in the Scheltdt to river barges before the vessels arrive in Antwerp, Belgium, then carried through Holland with no police inspection World War I veterans march on Washington, demanding their promised cash bonuses from the government. Military intelligence springs to action, trying to undermine the veterans' demands. G-2,(government intelligence agency) and a new organization, the Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) become involved in internal security and maintained surveillance on "radicals," peace activists, labor officials and others. A hotel room in Chicago occupied by Eleanor Roosevelt was bugged, as were the rooms of other notables. These kinds of activities continue through the present. Third International Congress on Eugenics held in New York. Dealt with persistence of African-Americans and other "inferior" and "socially inadequate" groups in reproducing, expanding their numbers and "amalgamating" with others. Group determined that these "dangers" to the "Better ethnic groups and to the Well-born" could be dealt with through sterilization or "Cutting off the bad stock of the unfit." Italy's fascist government under Mussolini sent as its representative Mary Harriman, sister of Avrell Harriman. The proceedings were dedicated to Harriman's mother who had paid for the founding of the race-science movement in America in 1910 and building The Eugenics Record Office as a branch of the Galton National Laboratory in London. Avrell Harriman personally arranged for transportation of Dr. Ernst Rudin, a psychiatrist at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Genealogy and Demography in Berlin. The Rockefeller family paid for an entire floor at the institute for Dr. Rudin to do his eugenics research. Rudin was unanimously elected President of the International Federation of Eugenics Societies. Rudin was now the official leader of the world eugenics movement. The movement included groups dedicated to the sterilization of mental patients (mental hygiene societies), execution of the insane, criminals and the terminally ill (euthanasia societies) and eugenical race-purification by prevention of births to parents of what they considered inferior blood stock (birth control societies). These groups openly called for elimination of the "Unfit" by any means, including violence. Rudin authored German law " ... For the prevention of Hereditary Diseases in Posterity" based on U.S. statutes in the state of Virginia and other states.

 

1933 — duPont's foreign relations director Wendell R. Swint meets with Hermann Schmitz and Carl Krauch of Farben in Berlin. Discover that I.G. Farben and Krupp industries had arranged for nazi industry to contribute one half percent of its entire wage and salary roll to the duPonts begin to finance native fascist groups in America. Despite being Jewish, duPonts smeared Jewish organizations. GM President William S. Knudsen says Germany is "the miracle of the twentieth century." Munitions Committee obtained information that duPont sold guns to Germany inspite of law. Felix duPont signed treaty with Hitler agent Giera, who was actually int'l spy Peter Brenner. Giera was appointed agent for Germany and Holland. Contract said military purchases of propellants and military explosives, to be smuggled through Holland. duPonts sent Giera to Japan to work for them. Giera had been a spy against the U.S. during WWI. Japan invades Manchuria. American I.T.&T makes transatlantic communications agreement with Hitler. Pope Pius XI signs Concordat with Hitler; declares political left wing and the Communist Party as the worst of two evils with Nazis. Pacelli (now Cardinal Pacelli) instrumental in drawing up Concordat with Hitler. American Ship and Commerce, controlled by Prescott Bush, notifies Max Warburg that he was to be the corporation's designated representative to Hamburg-Amerika. Warburg assures Hamburg-Amerika that Hitler is good for Germany, but that they are suffering because of the anti-Hitler propaganda. Two days later, Warburg's son Erich cables his cousin Frederick Warburg, a director of the Harriman railroad system asking him to "Use all your influence" to stop all anti-Nazi activity in America." Two days after, the "American-Jewish Committee," controlled by the Warburgs, and the "B'nai Brith"" which was heavily influenced by the Sulzbergers (who run the New York Times) issues a formal statement "That no American boycott against Germany be encouraged."This policy continued all through the 30's Hamburg-Amerika and North German Lloyd Company board meets jointly, merges. Christian J. Beck, a longtime Harriman executive, is installed as North American manager of freight and operations. In the joint Nazi Shipping Line. An agreement was reached in Berlin to coordinate all Nazi commerce in the U.S. through the "Harriman International Co." led by Avrell Harriman's cousin Oliver to head a syndicate of 150 firms and individuals to conduct "all exports from Hitler's Germany to the U.S." Arrangement negotiated by John Foster Dulles, who represented dozens of Nazi businesses, with the counsel of Max Warburg and Kurt Von Schroeder. Hitler identifies his "NEW ORDER" John D. Rockefeller Jr. appoints William S. Farish Chairman of Standard Oil of New Jersey. Farish spends a lot of time with Hermann Schmitz, I.G. Farben Chairman. Farish hires Nazi German crews for Standard Oil tanker ships.

 

1934 — Coup d'etat attempt (?) by JP Morgan, duPonts, GM people, American Legion reps, Turned to Smedley Butler, former Marine Commandant who allegedly turned over information to Roosevelt. Was forced to resign as Commandant after he called Mussolini a Dictator. Fortune Magazine, a Henry Luce publication, praises Italy's Mussolini. McCormick-Dickstein hearings into coup attempt confirmed it, but the report was not immediately released. Gold Reserve act passed. Made private ownership of gold bullion illegal, made gold notes redeemable for paper money only in America, but could still be redeemed for gold from overseas. Multinational corps could take in notes, cash in from overseas subsidiaries. Teagle starts at Standard Oil, starts drilling for oil in Hungary. United States Chamber of Commerce issues report "Combating Subversive Activities in the United States," that blueprinted a legislative and intelligence program against the political left that would last through the 1950's, maybe beyond. Report demanded passage of anti-subversive legislation, including a sedition law and demanded an agency within the Justice Dept. be created to deal with subversive activities. A supervisor from the "Nazi Labor Front" rides with every shipment of the Harriman-Bush line. Further, employees of the New York offices were directly organized into the Nazi Labor Front organization. Hamburg-Amerika provides free passage to those going to Germany for propaganda purposes. The Line also subsidizes pro-Nazi newspapers.

 

1935 — Firearms tax act, legal precedent for Marijuana Tax Act. Avoided constitutional clash over regulating personal possession of something the government claimed was bad. Hemp decorticator developed, reenabling industry to run. Hitler publishes "Mein Kampf," his plan for world domination.

 

1936 Meetings between duPont and Treasury department. Formulating plans for making Hemp illegal. Dr. Heinrich Albert leaves law firm of Sullivan and Cromwell that represented Nazi interests in America becomes Ford's chairman in Germany. Sullivan and Cromwell was associated with Allen and John Foster Dulles. Irenee duPont used GM money to finance the notorious Black Legion, which tried to prevent autoworkers from unionizing with brutal methods, especially against black workers. Liberty league getting $500,000. a year from duPont. Whipped up hatred against blacks and Jews, love of Hitler and loathing of the Roosevelts. Spanish civil war starts, Franco brings Fascism. Communist agent Gen. Turkul sold the idea of NTS (people's labor alliance) to Japan. Japanese thought NTS was a good way to keep and eye on the Communists. Hoover meets with FDR to explore a proposed investigation of domestic communism and fascism. Hoover spent most of his time with FDR tearing down Communism; very little time spent on the rapidly growing Fascist movement in America. Hoover tells FDR that communists are in a position to paralyze vital areas of the economy because of their infiltration and control of key labor unions. FDR swallows it. Hoover suggests using a 1916 statute authorizing expenditures for investigation of matters referred to the Bureau by the Secretary of State. Why not have State request such an investigation? Bureau would then have authority to detect "propaganda." Hoover, FDR, Secretary of State Cordell Hull meet, map out plan, FDR telling Hull that the ends of crippling Communism was worth the means of a sneaky move. In other words, Hoover, Hull and more importantly, FDR conspired to deceive Congress. Further, Hoover betrayed his own 1924 pledge to Stone. The 1916 measure intended closed-ended, limited investigations related to foreign affairs, not the extended, domestic political probe apparently Hoover, FDR, and Hull had in mind. Hoover publicly stated his understanding of the President's position was "a broad picture of the general movement and its activities as they may affect the economic and political life of the country as a whole Roosevelt era of intelligence gathering. Hoover essentially picked up where he left off in 1924, set up a broad informer program, and resumed collecting files.

 

1937 — Marijuana Tax Act passed Congress, providing for required permits, rarely given out, to grow Hemp. "The World's Most Profitable and Desirable Crop" article in Mechanical Engineering magazine published reporting a resurgence of Hemp industry, alas too late. Nylon and sulfuric acid paper process both patented by duPont, after Marijuana Tax Act in place. Ford continues, in spite of law, to grow Hemp for fuel, plastics, etc. Franco sends emissary to London to arrange financing of the fascist rebellion. Working agreement reached to merge Hitler's Germany and America. Hitler sends two representatives, America sends seven, including at least one congressman as well as business and political leaders.

 

1938 — McCormick-Dickstein hearings finally released, though on a limited basis. SEC hearings into Nazi ownership of American I.G. Teagle joins with American I.G. to work with Standard, duPont, and GM to get Tetraethyl lead fuel to Nazis (needed for combat aircraft) also supplied Japan. Teagle, through Farrish, staffed Standard Oil tankers with Nazi crews; registered the tankers through Panama. Carried oil to Tenerife in the Canary Islands where it was transferred to German tankers. "Billion Dollar Crop" article printed in "Popular Mechanics" magazine about the benefits of Hemp, published after Marijuana tax act of 1937. Japanese are funding NTS network. NTS couriers carry Japanese diplomatic passports, issued from Japanese controlled Manchuria. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic act passed. Shifted burden of proof of safety to manufacturer of a substance. Hoover, addressing American Legion audience, states "Fascism has always grown in the slimy wastes of Communism. Our democratic institutions cannot exist half American and half alien in spirit ... " Hoover also urges a continuation, even an expansion, of what he called "counter-espionage activities" cut the requested Bureau intelligence appropriation by half, and adopted Hoover's suggestion of continuing use of the State Department to circumvent congressional obstacles.

 

1939 — Hitler starts WWII in Europe. George Mooney, GM's man at Opel meets with Emil Puhl (BIS and Reichsbank) and Gφring assistant Helmuth Wohlthat and agrees to secure American gold for the Nazis. Contacts Ambassador Joseph Kennedy who agrees to try and get gold. Roosevelt refused. I.G. Farben now supplies 90% of Germany's foreign exchange, 95% of imports, & 85% of military and commercial goods. American I.G. (who owned General Aniline, Agfa, Ansco photographic film manufacturers,) convinces the American military to use their films and processing when they took pictures of bases. They copied photographs of our secret installations and sent them to Berlin. Just before his death, Pope Pius XI prepared cyclical strongly denouncing Fascism. He died before he could deliver it. Pacelli voted in as Pope Pius XII. Claimed he was anti-Nazi, but statements in that regard all but absent. Two points of view about Pius XII's silence about Nazi viciousness: Had he spoke up against Nazis, Church might have been destroyed by Nazis. Since he didn't, though, hundreds of thousands, maybe millions more lives might have been lost. Hudal holds Golden Nazi Party membership badge. He had been known as pro-Nazi since 1930. He had also held Vatican office since then, including working with the Vatican's Holy Office, which censored books and educational material. In spite of his public pro-Nazi stance, Hudal was promoted from Priest to Titular Bishop in 1933, an extremely rare honor for a rector of a teaching college. Hudal, despite official denial, was apparently close to Pope Pius XII, their relationship going back to 1924. Hitler announces Ribbentrop-Molotov pact. Kurt Jahnke, Ribbentrop's security chief who also worked with the British, trying to establish German/British alliance against the Soviet Union. Plans to remove Hitler after pact. Vatican stands by to pass information should hostilities break out. Pius XII asked to be intermediary between Germans and British. A group of conspirators formed to overthrow Hitler is known as "The Black Orchestra" and is headed by Jahnke and Admiral Canaris. Catholic lawyer Dr. Joseph Muller joins as a courier to the Vatican. In November, Muller reports Pope is ready to help. Presidential directive (in September) gave FBI and J. Edgar Hoover an open-ended intelligence mission unrelated to law enforce-ment. Attorney General Frank Murphy urged FDR to concentrate " ... all espionage, counter-espionage, and sabotage matters" must be concentrated in the FBI and army and navy intelligence. Bureau's primacy over other domestic agencies stressed by reason of its investigative capacity, plus its file holdings. FDR goes along with it. Bureau assumes it has a carte blanche power, even though it was never authorized. In June, FDR issues statement asking all police officers, sheriffs, other law enforcement agents to turn over to the FBI any evidence of sabotage, subversive activity, and violations of neutrality laws. Hoover sees nothing wrong with Nazism, he maintains contacts with top German officials even after Hitler came to power, exchanging information with them. Hoover, during the war, made a few Nazi spy arrests, mostly falsely. Most of Nazi agents either volunteered information, were defectors, or were based on investigations done by other agencies. Bureau suppressed these facts for the greater glory of the Bureau. Postwar Rosenberg case, Rudolph Abel case developed in same way, though publicized by Bureau of Counterintelligence. Hoover institutes "Custodial Detention Program" for detention of individuals with "strong Communist (or Nazi) tendencies, whose presence at liberty in the country in time of war or national emergency, would constitute a menace to the public peace and safety of the United States Government." Criteria for listing were interpreted to include those who distribute printed material favorable to foreign interests and hostile to "The American Way of Life," as well as agitators of "internal strife" and "hatreds." To keep program secret, Hoover instructed agents to work under the cover of the "Foreign Agents Registration Act." Standard Oil of New Jersey agents Emil Helfferich and Karl Lindemann are authorized to write checks to Hitler's SS chief Heinrich Himmler on a special Standard Oil account. The account is managed by German-British-American banker Kurt Von Schroeder. This continues until 1944.

 

1940 — LaFolette report issued. British blockade runs the length of the Americas, to stop goods being sent to Germany. British stop a French tanker, loaded with 16,000 tons of Standard Oil. Cordel Hull orders British to let it go; they do. Farrish fuels airlines that supply Germany, with Tetraeythllead being a regular cargo. Farrish changes Standard's ships to Panamanian registry, granted immunity from search and seizure by Under Secretary of the Navy, James V. Forrestall, who was also a vice president of GAF (see 1939). Farrish is also shipping oil to Russia, where it is loaded on to trains and taken to Germany. Hull is forced to apply export controls on Standard, but are never implemented. Farrish supplies LATI and Condor (Nazi airlines) with fuel from Standard Oil of Brazil, even after Pearl Harbor was attacked in 1941. When Brazil joined on the side of the U.S., that government stopped the practice. Westrick meets with Edsel and Henry Ford to arrange a restriction on Ford-built Rolls Royce engines, used in British aircraft, and convinced Ford to increase production of 5-ton trucks, favorite of the Nazis. Ford also arranged shipments of tires to Germany, in spite of shortages here in America. The Ford plant in Poissy, France, in the occupied sector, makes aircraft engines for the Nazis. Has Edsel Ford's approval. SS finds out about Japanese spy ring with connections to the Vatican. Vatican information is passed to Japanese journalist, then on to British. Alien Registration Act of 1940 (Smith Act) passed. Allows government to prosecute a foreign national (or an American) who advocates overthrow of government, or is a member of a group that does. No less than 39 anti-alien bills pending, many of them aimed at West Coast labor leader Harry Bridges. Professor Zechariah Chafee Jr., the nation's foremost authority on free speech law characterized act as "the most drastic restriction on free speech ever enacted in the United States during peace." Justice dept. did not testify, military were "permitted" to speak in favor of the bill. Only Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins opposed the alien registration requirements of the bill. Richard Nixon goes to Cuba to "explore the possibilities of establishing law or business connections in Havana." Went back in 1952 with ex-FBI agent Richard Danner. In the late '60's Danner is employed by Howard Hughes, and was the courier who delivered $100,000 from Hughes to Bebe Rebozo. Standard Oil of New Jersey and I.G. Farben of Germany opens the slave labor camp Auschwitz to develop artificial rubber and gasoline from coal. Hitler's government supplied Jews and political dissidents for the laborers, who were worked to near death and then murdered. Perhaps the forerunner of the plan to imprison peaceful Marijuana smokers as American prison labor? (Author's question)

 

1941 — Teagle and Farrish, who had set up oil fields in Romania for Standard Oil, paid $11 million in oil bonds (the oil came from Standard). A report was made that refueling stations for German ships had been set up in Mexico, Central and South America. Standard Oil of New Jersey and Standard Oil of California are among the operators. Standard Oil subsidiaries in Managua, Nicaragua are found to be distributing Nazi literature, meanwhile, Standard Oil's Nelson Rockefeller is made coordinator of Inter American Affairs to Latin America. It was reported that Standard Oil is shipping 20% of its Dutch West Indies output to Tenerife, selling it to the Nazis. Hull asks Treasury's Foley if Standard could sell to Germany. Foley says Executive order 8389 allowed that with the approval of the Secretary of State. Roosevelt appoints Farrish's right hand man, Thornburgh as Foreign Petroleum Coordinator. Farrish and Collier appointed to the board. Germany contracts I.T. & T. for switchboards and other communications (50 thousand per month by 1944). RCA, who owned NBC radio network, I.T.& T., British Cable and Wireless set up a network in Argentina for Nazi information. GAF agrees to ship drugs, other patents to South America for shipment to the Nazis. Lindbergh still backs Hitler, even after Pearl Harbor. Ford puts Lindbergh on his executive staff. America enters the war on December 8th. Japanese and Soviets sign a neutrality pact. Germany, Japan also sign a non-aggression pact. Japan would not attack the Soviets, but to help the Axis cause, would attack America's Pearl Harbor. Popular Mechanics issue of December reports Ford Motor Company has a car built mainly of Hemp, wheat straw, and Sisal fibers. More durable than steel, lighter weight, and furthers Ford's belief that he can "grow automobiles from the soil." Dusko Popov, a Yugoslav, was a double agent for Nazis, British (was model for Ian Fleming's "James Bond") was code named "Tricycle." Germans sent him to U.S. to reorganize and run an intelligence network. Opportunity to deceive Germans, providing Hoover would go along. Hoover was turned off by Popov's playboy lifestyle, regardless of it being the perfect cover. Hoover rejected British pleas to help by feeding false information to the Germans. Tricycle had discovered Japanese interest in Pearl Harbor's fortifications and defenses. Hoover was given this information 4 months before Pearl Harbor was attacked. Hoover buried informa-tion because he had "no way to evaluate it," and it drew no publicity for himself or the Bureau. Popov gave Hoover information about the Nazi "Microdot" communications device. Hoover did nothing with it until, under his byline in "Reader's Digest" magazine ( a known Fascist publication) he revealed it. Hoover, moreover, claimed he had obtained it directly from a captured Nazi spy. The article contained an illustration that threatened to blow the cover of Popov's source, a Brazilian diplomat. Popov threatened to expose Hoover's plagiarism. Hoover agreed to get publication of South American "Reader's Digest" edition stopped. Of course he did. Prescott Bush and associates advertise for a "Young, malleable candidate" to run for Congress. Richard Nixon applied and won the job, beginning a long history of political ties with the Bush family. Nixon, an attorney, became the mouthpiece for the Bush group.

 

1942 — Truman Committee gets Arnold report about Standard Oil's complicity with Nazis. Nevertheless, Roosevelt suspends any further anti-trust action against Standard for the duration of the war. Roosevelt defends Farrish to Ickes. Patent committee says Standard interfered with American production, favoring Nazi Germany. Meanwhile, Standard is authorized to continue oil sales to Germany from Romania through Switzerland. Farrish is publicly accused of lying to the U.S. government about his Nazi involvement. Stress causes Farrish to have a heart attack and dies. Farrish's son, serving in the Army Air Corps dies shortly after during a training accident. Farrish's fortune reverts to grandson William Stamps Farrish III, who would become future President George Bush's confidante. A memo from Yingling to Asst. Secretary of State Breckinridge Long about I.T. & T. handling communication for the Nazis. Nothing is done. Roosevelt directs Nelson Rockefeller to see that I.T. & T. stops handling communications traffic with Nazis. Rockefeller turns it over to I.T.& T.'s Garnett. Nothing is done. David Sarnoff of RCA knows about Transradio's connections to Berlin. American I.G. sold to Hermann Schmitz, making it an American company. Sterling Drugs refuses to release Atabine (Quinine) to American military. Nothing is done about it. State department refuses to help German-Jewish refugees. Ford plant in Poissy, France, bombed by British, but no reference made in media about plant being owned by Ford. Vichy government promises reparations. A Ford plant is set up in North Africa to outfit Nazi commander Ervin Rommel. Ford's plant in France is rebuilt in four, undisclosed locations. GM's Mooney is appointed Assistant of Defense Liaison Work in Detroit, in spite of F.B.I. reports of Nazism. Representatives of duPont meet with representatives of Hermann Goring about duPont's money in occupied France being protected. First Ford's, now GM's and duPont's assets are protected from seizure by Nazis. U.S. embassy in Panama files report on GM collaboration with Germany. Report is ignored. GM's Adam/Opel plant in Germany is manufacturing Junkers JU 88 propulsion systems used in Junkers bombers, the best the Nazis have. Nazis occupy the Ukraine. Hitler applies pressure to Pope Pius XII: Embrace the Nazis or he'll destroy the Church. Ukrainian-Nazi collaborators kill hundreds of thousands of Jews, Catholics, and other Christians to collaborate with them. Pope agrees to open negotiations in the Ukraine, in hopes of unifying churches in that region. Vatican became "neutral" in favor of Germany, in exchange for easing religious persecution in the Ukraine. U.S. government orders Nazi banking interests seized from Prescott Bush's Union Banking Corp. The shares of Nazi stock were all owned by Bush, E. Roland "Bunny" Harriman, three Nazi executives, and others. On October 26, the government seized two Nazi front organizations run by Bush-Harriman-The "Holland-American Trading Corporation" and the "Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation" In November, the government stated it was only taking the Nazi share of the money, leaving the rest in Bush's coffers. Prescott Bush and associates had already financed Germany's war effort. Alien Property Custodian Leo T. Crowley signed Vesting Order Number 248 seizing Bush's property under the "Trading With the Enemy Act. Note #4 in the order stated that Union Banking Corp. Was run for the "Thyssen family" of "Germany and/or Hungary ... Nationals ... of a designated enemy country." Government also seized all properties of the Hamburg-Amerika Line and North German Lloyd.

 

1943 — I.T.& T. sends communications equipment to Denmark to automate the telephone system (Germany's northern European operation benefits the most). South American governments stop most communications to Germany in spite of RCA, I.T.&T., Transradio. 13% of I.T.& T.'s business now comes from Nazi Germany. SKF (Swedish ball bearing manufacturer with facilities in America) executive goes to Batt complaining that SKF's ball bearing "shortage" was hurting war effort. Executive was dismissed. SKF accused of favoring Nazis. Meanwhile, American SKF is sending ball bearings to Germany via Panama. SKF controls 80% of all ball bearing production in Europe. Sven Winquist is Chairman, and good friend of Hermann Goring and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor. Prominent partner in Jacob Wallenberg's Stockholm Enskilda, the largest private bank in Sweden ... a correspondent bank of Hitler's Reichsbank. Raoul Wallenberg, a relative of Jacob, was rescuing Jews in Hungary. Jacob was the Nazi's most important banker. When U.S. Ambassador to Sweden demanded an embargo on SKF bearings being sold to the Nazi's, the Swedish Foreign Minister threatened to publish a list showing trade between Sweden and Germany based on contracts known by the Allies and based on agreements with them. British Minister of Economic Warfare, Lord Selbourne, begged American's not to put SKF on embargo blacklist and outbid the Nazi's for SKF ball bearings. British used Jacob Wallenberg as a go-between with Nazis. Raoul Wallenberg was captured by Soviets, tortured him for several weeks before they realized they had the wrong Wallenberg. They killed him to cover up their British connection. SKF's American lawyer was Allen Dulles. Allen, with brother John Foster Dulles, had represented most of the Nazi banks prior to war.German bankers, along with French correspondents, transferred 9 Billion gold francs via BIS to Algiers. Collaborationists boosted their holding from 350 to 525 Million dollars. Another collaborator in the scheme was one of the Vatican's espionage group who leaked the secret to members of Hitler's high command. From a banker's point of view, peace negotiations between the Vatican and Nazis were a good cover to continue business as usual. This makes the Vatican's role in the "Black Orchestra even stranger. American 8th air force bombs SKF plant in Schweinfurt. 60 U.S. planes are shot down. Analysis is that Nazis were tipped off about raid. America's General Motors (GM) builds the engine for Germany's ME 262 ... the world's first jet airplane, giving Germany potential air superiority. Both Ford and GM are found to be repairing German military vehicles in Switzerland. Nazi General Walter Dornberger urges Hitler to proceed with V-2 rocket. Slave labor used; 20 thousand die through starvation, over work, disease. British and American officials decide nothing should be done about Holocaust, lest Nazis dump all the Jews on the West. Not a single Allied nation wanted the Jews. Jews were considered expendable in the war effort. The Vatican's policy was in accord with Allies on this point. When the British government found out Pope Pius XII was going to approach the Hungarian Catholics about helping get Jews out of there, they sent Franklin Gowen, their ambassador to the Vatican to urge the Pope not to because of "Political repercussions." In spite of not supporting Hungarian Jews, Pius did get Mussolini's forces to purposely bungle shipment of Italian Jews to death camps. Also was responsible for saving 28 thousand Jews in Berlin by saying Jews who married Catholics would be protected by Church. Same tactic worked for awhile in the Balkans. Pius was not as evil as his detractors claim, not as righteous as his supporters claim. Churchill, Roosevelt, spoke up, but did nothing. Pius remained silent, but did something. Meanwhile, Hudal meets with Walter Rauff, the developer of the "Mobile Gas Vans" used against the Jews. Nazi superiors sent Rauff to Italy without specific assignment. His contacts with Hudal apparently led to setting up escape network. Attorney General Tom Clark orders Hoover to end Custodial Detention Program because it lacks statutory authority. Hoover, nevertheless, continues program. Agents ordered to strict secrecy about it.

 

1944 — SKF Schweinfurt plant rebuilt, working at 93% capacity, while the Philadelphia (America) plant puts out less than 38% The Treasury Department lets SKF pose as an American company. Dean Acheson refuses to censure SKF. Nazi General Reinhardt Gehlen plans his surrender to Americans. Albert Hartl, former Catholic Priest turned SS officer, tells U.S. intelligence that Vatican planned to establish a Catholic buffer zone in Central Europe after the war. It would exclude the U.S., and would try and turn the Western powers against Soviet Union and towards Nazis. Archbishops Tardini, Montini, Bishops Hudal and Bishops of Gorizia and of Ljubljana. Also supported by Alcide de Gasperi, eventually post-war leader of Italian Christian Democrat party, and Monsignor Giovanni. Montini was Pope's Undersecretary of State for Ordinary Affairs. Montini could not have formulated policy without Pius's knowledge and consent. Vatican Information Service formed. U.S. Army intelligence noticed suspicious activities. Service ostensibly had been formed to handle welfare messages by radio to and from prisoners of war in North Africa. Americans believed some kind of clandestine activity was going on, and forbade expansion of service. Later reports indicate that service did expand into a major intelligence force after the war. Cardinal Maglione dies. He had been Vatican's Secretary of State, a post reassumed by Pope Pius XII. Monsignor's Tardini and Montini then worked directly for the Pope in determining Vatican foreign policy. This allowed Hudal to implement his escape network plans. Evidence exists that Montini gave Hudal every opportunity to set up network. In December, the Vatican asked the Allies permission to visit German P.O.W.'s. Hudal was sent. A senior U.S. diplomat who knew Hudal's views, allowed him to visit the P.O.W.'s anyway. Hudal essentially took news of the escape network directly to the P.O.W.'s, advising them to hide among legitimate refugees in camps. New York Mayor LaGuardia issues his report on Cannabis smoking. "does not lead directly to mental or physical deterioration, does not develop addiction or tolerance ... and is not a direct causal factor in sexual or criminal misconduct." Kim Philby, already working for Soviet intelligence, as well as British, is promoted to new anti-Soviet section of SIS. In November, a German officer named Karl Marcus, an emissary of Kurt Jahnke, delivers a message that Jahnke wants to re-open the "Black Orchestra" peace negotiations through the Vatican. Walter Schellenberg, SS intelligence leader, had joined Black Orchestra, was ready to help. Gen. William J. Donovan proposes formation of a permanent intelligence gathering apparatus which would replace Bureau's secret intelligence system. Hoover obtains memorandum, leaks it to the Chicago Tribune. (memorandum was classified TOP SECRET) Hoover accuses OSS of being infiltrated by communists and that the proposed Central Intelligence Agency would become an American Gestapo. He instructed FBI agents to destroy their files rather than turn them over to a rival agency.

 

1945 — War ends. Nazi war crimes trials are set up. U.S. Army and Navy set up "Operation Overcast" to bring Nazi intelligence experts into American intelligence community. Up to 350 specialists approved by U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. David Sarnoff states national security dependent on scientific knowledge over the Soviets, urges Nazi scientists be brought to America. Nazi General Gehlen released from prison, starts anti-Soviet espionage unit with his former Nazi aides; assigned to Camp King where they were designated as a "Historical Study Group." Prior to surrender to Americans, Gehlen buries microfilmed Soviet intelligence in Austrian Alps. Retrieves after capture, turns over to interrogation center. Gens. Siebert, Smith, OSS leader Alan Dulles, seeks control of Gehlen and his documents for their units. Gehlen, 3 assistants sent to Washington for debriefing. Siebert given go ahead on using Nazis for counter intelli-gence, but "under his own authority." Reasonable to suspect Truman at least knew about arrangement and did nothing. U.S. spends $200 million between 1945-1955 employing four thousand people to revive Gehlen's Nazi spy organization. CIA director Alan Dulles says "He's on our side and that's all that matters." Central Registry of War Crimes and Security suspects (CROWCASS) formed to track down war crimes suspects. CIC enlists Gestapo's Klaus Barbie to help track down Communist intrigue. Pope Pius XII reversed his policy and started anti-Soviet campaign. Vatican started circulating propaganda about Soviet atrocities against Berliners in Soviet-occupied zone. Vatican reports similar atrocities (torture, rape, mass destruction) in all Soviet held areas. British intelligence reports Soviet anti-Catholic links with Nazis and other Fascists. Cardinal Tisserant, the Vatican's Soviet expert, claimed Soviets would start a new war and was in a favorable position to overrun Europe. According to British intelligence, Soviets viewed Vatican as reactionary, and a supporter and protector of Hitler and the Nazis. Vatican forms first of the "Ratlines" to evacuate millions of "displaced persons" from all parts of Europe. Among the innocent victims of the war were hidden Nazis, trying to escape prosecution. Some Priests knew who the Nazis were, and actively sought them out. Franz Stangl, Commander of the Treblinka gas chambers was captured by Americans and held near Salzburg, Austria. He was transferred to Glasenbach for two years, when he was turned over to the Austrian government. He "escaped" in May, 1948 when he made his way to Rome to find Bishop Hudal. Hudal's name had been circulated among Nazi prisoners of war as a means of escape. Hudal obtained an International Red Cross passport for Stangl, paid his passage to Syria and had a job waiting for him in a mill. Stangl reported a large network formed by the Vatican to rescue Nazis. Famed Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal, who recaptured Stangl in 1967 believes a sophisticated Vatican network was involved in getting Stangl out of Europe. Further, Stangl told a West German war crimes trial that Nazis had advance notice of Vatican's network. Other war criminals also reported knowing that if they wanted freedom, get to Rome and look up Hudal. Wiesenthal is convinced that Hudal was responsible for smuggling out Adolf Eichmann, Nazi head of "Jewish Affairs" who assured that Jews were killed at peak efficiency. Eichmann was given new identity, hidden in Genoa, in a Monastery under the protection of Archbishop Siris before being smuggled to South America. The Catholic relief organization Caritas paid all of Eichmann's travel expenses to South America. Wiesenthal says he found "many" war criminals living in Monasteries, equipped with new I.D. supplied by Hudal. Rauff captured by Americans in Italy. His release was obtained by Monsignor Don Guiseppe Bicchierai, Secretary to Milan's Cardinal Schuster. Bicchierai was one of Vatican intermediaries in the secret surrender negotiations. He sheltered Rauff and arranged for him to stay in Convents. It is possible that Rauff's release was obtained by the Italian Communist Party in exchange for Rauff's list of Fascist Party members. Rauff was officially released to the "S Force Verona," an OSS unit working with British/American Special Counter Intelligence team in Italy, headed by James Jesus Angleton. Rauff, meanwhile, boasted of his connections with Allied agents Hussman and Alan Dulles in Switzerland. Rauff made contact with Archbishop Siri and immediately sent to work at the Vatican on establishing a Nazi-smuggling system (Ratlines). He linked up with Frederico Schwendt, former SS officer, considered by many to be one of the greatest money counterfeiters in history, having forged millions of dollars in bank notes in Germany. Schwendt laundered counterfeit money through various banks, converting it to legitimate Western bank notes. This was the seed money for the first Nazi escape network. The Vatican has never opened its books on refugee assistance. Dossiers on Schwendt and money laundering in U.S. archives remain highly classified. Meanwhile, the International Red Cross set up to supply identity documents to refugees from the war. Many of the documents were forged or obtained falsely. I.R.C. knew many were false, but did nothing about it. The documents were easily forged, and could even be purchased on the black market. The Vatican apparently was aware of how the Ratlines were funded, and they asked the American government not to delve too deeply into it. The Ustashi, an emigre group, contacts the Vatican for help in forming either another independent Croatian state or a "Danube-Adriatic Union in which ... Croatia would have its possibility for development; Ustashi met with Papal mission in Salzburg in June to recruit Vatican's help. Stalin sends British message accusing them of making a deal with the Nazis behind his back, causing the Germans to ease up on western front, concentrate on Russians. Churchill later admits giving orders to Lord Montgomery to be careful in collecting German arms, and to keep them so they could easily be given back to the Germans. England had prepared for war with the Soviets, planning to use the defeated German army as an ally. Soviets were, by now, using the Vaticans ratlines, sometimes running the ratlines with double agents. Kim Philby heavily involved.According to British records, a German named Mengele was interrogated in connection with Chemical weapons. Not clear if it was Joseph or his brother Karl. All Germans with expertise in chemical and biological weapons were turned over to the British. British, according to some circumstantial evidence, made a deal with Mengele for his nerve gas records. Despite his war criminal record, Mengele was allowed to go into the Soviet zone to bring back a truckful of records he buried before war's end. Shortly afterwards, Mengele's brother, father and an associate were released from custody and allowed to resume civilian employment. Mengele went to Italy for emigration to Argentina. According to Omrcanin, Dragonovic processed "thousands" of Nazi scientists for emigration. When the Americans realized how far Soviets had gotten on chemical weapons, they hired German experts of their own. Mengele had been working on the nerve gases Sarin, Tabun, and Soman, later called the G-series by NATO. Same formulae still used by both Soviets and West. During 1970's, U.S. codebreakers found evidence West German companies were selling Sarin secret formulae to several Arab nations. During 1960's, reports indicated that West Germany was behind proliferation of nuclear weapons. West Germany was afraid NATO might pull out of Europe, leaving West Germany without nuclear defense. According to a former Argentine diplomat, a West German-Argentine Trade Treaty during the '60's was struck, allowing development of Nuclear weapons by using large emigre communities of German scientists in Argentina and South Africa. U.S. Treasury Dept. accused Allen Dulles of laundering funds from the Nazi bank of Hungary into Switzerland. Similar charges leveled against Hans Bernd Giesevius, who had worked for Dulles at OSS, while he was an agent at the Reichsbank. State Dept. took over Treasury's allegations. Investigation dropped. World Commerce Corporaton formed just after the war, designed to rebuild German-South American trade networks. One of the attorneys is Allen Dulles, whose assistant, Frank Wisner, was State dept. deputy for currency and economic reform in the American zone in West Germany. William Casey, a Navy Lieutenant assigned to the OSS was ordered by mentor Gen. William "Wild Bill" Donovan to set up a spy network inside of Germany, prior to war's end. Casey found Americans didn't work well inside of Germany, so he recruited anti-Nazi Prisoners of War. This is a violation of the Geneva Convention. Casey blew it off, looking at it as a necessity of getting his spying job done.

 

1946 — Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) requests one thousand Nazi specialists. Truman accepts idea. JIOA alters records on recruited Nazis to ease security clearance under "Operation Paperclip." Circumvents prohibition on active Nazis ... recruiting continues unimpeded for decade. Gehlen promises not to hire SS, SD, or Gestapo agents, but of his first 50 officers, at least six are. Earliest SS recruits have false papers. Gen. Siebert had to know and did nothing. Gehlen arranged financing of Vlasov army, other Nazi supporters in Eastern Europe. Intemarium operational. Vatican's Father Draganovich instrumental in the network. Vast majority of Intemarium leaders were ex-Fascist leaders who worked for either British or French secret services with a fair sprinkling of Soviet agents. Vatican officials also active. San Gerolamo's Executive Committee in June appointed a "special delegation" to attend a personal audience with Pope Pius. Dragonovic was a senior member of the committee. Two friends, Dr. Ivo Omrcanin and Professor Nikolic, the Ustashi propagandist were at the meeting. Many Ustashi emigres were hiding in San Girolamos. Italian authorities had complained to Western powers about Omrcanin's activities. U.S. intelligence had determined that Omrcanin had worked closely with Dragonovic. Kim Philby had merged Nazi networks like Intermarium and Prometheus into the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations (ABN). The Vatican was unaware that the Soviets, not the British, were controlling ABN. A large number of KGB, other agents, were posing as fugitive Nazi war criminals, and being smuggled to the West through the ratlines, under an impregnable cover. Soviets more than happy to be rid of the original Nazis, and helped Vatican get them out of their way by running rat-lines. Alan Dulles had spies working for OSS-they changed to various names, including Strategic Services Unit, War Dept. Detachment and Document Disposal Unit. There were, in effect, two CIA's working in Germany: One politically liberal, (Dept. of Army Detachment) the other (Dulles's) was extreme right wing. Dulles joins Thomas Dewey's election staff, hoping Dewey (right winger) would win 1948 U.S. election. James Jesus Angleton makes solid connections with Vatican, enlists help of Montini. Angleton, in conjunction with Montini, convinces Pope Pius XII that Communists are behind propaganda campaign against Italian Christian Democrats. Angleton's first major assignment in Italy was to see to it that the Communists did not win the 1946 elections. Coalition government formed. Ferruccio Parri, resistance leader, backed by Dulles had been forced to resign as designated Prime Minister. Alcide deGasperi, backed by Angleton, had been installed as Parri's replacement. Angleton and others said to have fed substantial sums of money into the June referendum. deGasperi was Montini's close associate in Vatican political initiatives, ran guns to the Kriazri and had personally protected fugitive Fascist Ferenc Vajta.

 

1947 — Gehlen mostly restores his old Nazi line of command, including Franz Six and Emil Augsburg, SS veterans instrumental in extermination of Jews. Protected from prosecution by Gehlen. Organization files false intelligence reports indicating Soviets massing troops to attack Western Europe. Gehlen's influence affects foreign policy decisions, starts American interest in "cold war." CIC agent Gene Bramel says we used Nazis because they know the Eastern European/Soviet territory, hated communists and were used by America, Britain, France and USSR. CIC offers immunity from prosecution to ex-Nazis for cooperation. Nazi Gen. Walter Dornburger secretly brought to U.S. to work on classified rocketry program at Wright Field. Truman claims communists are backing civil war in Greece, steps in with multi-million dollar aid package. Holy Bond of Greek Officers (pro-Nazi) receives millions of those dollars. U.S. intelligence bungles coup attempt in Romania. CIC agents who have been overseeing Klaus Barbie and Emil Augsburg, now handle Mykola Lebed. Lebed was Ukranian police minister, and collaborated with Nazis during war. Offered his file on Soviet and Ukranian matters to U.S. in exchange for U.S. protection. U.S. State Department reports the Catholic Church is the "Largest single organization involved in the illegal move-ment of emigrants." Because of influence of the Church in Latin America, those countries almost favor taking in Nazis. U.S. intelligence gets reports of Vatican involvement in clandestine anti-Communist operations. While it was believed the Vatican wasn't as involved as thought, it is known they were involved in recruiting ex-Nazis as anti-Communist agents to regain control of Central and Eastern Europe. Some of the agents were notorious War Criminals. Some Church officials were laundering stolen Nazi treasure to finance their "Freedom fighters. "American intelligence agents burglarized the Vatican's smuggling center, bugging its code room and recruiting its own operatives. It wasn't until much later it was discovered that Communist agents had infiltrated the command structure from top to bottom. In other words, the Vatican's "Anti-Communist" networks were being secretly manipulated by Moscow. Some of the Vatican's "Nazis" were really Soviet double agents. Bishop Hudal, who had worked on Vatican's response to anticipated Allied victory, now was to rescue as many Nazis from what was seen as Allied vengeance. U.S. State Department informed that the Vatican did know how the Ratlines were funded. A series of articles in the Italian press questioned the motives of Pope Pius XII who was referred to as "the German Pope." Milan newspaper, "Milano Sera" was very critical of the Vatican. Pressure was applied to Hudal, however it took the Vatican four years to replace him. The Ratlines, however, did not stop, being run by more low key Priests, especially Croatian Fascists. The Vatican was willing to smuggle Nazis of every stripe, including those collaborators. U.S. special agent William Cowen tried to catch emigres, but couldn't. He suspected Intermarium involvement. American officers figured Vatican was the largest illegal emigre organization. Because of Vatican influence in Catholic countries in the west such as Argentina, Mexico, Cuba, etc. foreign missions have favorable attitude towards emigres. Gowen discovers Vatican's denial of involvement not fully backed by evidence. Neither was claim that entire Holy See is involved. Emigres are operating on the Vatican's fringes, getting money from a small group inside the Vatican, part of the Intermarium. This is a group formed in the early 1920's by White Russians after the revolution. It covered all peoples displaced by Bolshevik take over, mainly Catholic-oriented nations. Ferenc Vajta, a Hungarian, was a key organizer of the post-war Intemarium. Gowen tracked him to a Rome monastery where he had been staying. He had been the Hungarian General Counsel at war's end, and had been sent to organize the evacuation of Hungarian industry and refugees. He was one of the few who could get at Hungarian industrial wealth. This helped France revive the Intemarium. DeGaulle wanted to gain sympathies of Eastern Europeans to regain what he called "France's Rightful Role" in European affairs. He helped the emigre's revive the Intemarium. He also wanted to work with the Vatican, because he knew France wasn't strong enough to do the job by itself. DeGaulle approached French Cardinal Tisserant to set up secret collaborations to "save European heritage." DeGaulle wanted the Pope to unite Europe's Catholics to roll back Soviet influence. Vajta severed most of his ties to France when that government wanted his rights to a Hungarian Bauxite mine in return for financial and political support. Churchill and England also wanted influence in Europe. His aim was to create a confederation of Central European nations under British influence. British recruited Eastern European emigres to do the job. By July Gowen was advocating American intelligence take over the Intemarium. British Major Stephen Clissold assigned to Genoa to arrest suspect Ustashia war criminals. Got word that a group would be sailing on the SS Phillipa. The wanted men were sponsored by the "Pontifical Commissions de Assistenza," and being looked after by Father Petranovic, a collaborator with Dragonovic. Captured former Yugoslav Air Force officer Gen. Vladimir Kren had organized notable defections to the Germans, and was reportedly on board. Criminals captured. This is one of the few times the Western Powers triumphed over the Ratlines. Sections of Allied authorities were, in fact, cooperating with the Vatican and Argentina to smuggle war criminals. Both Washington and London had entered into agreements with the Vatican. The Vatican was being used as a cover for the West's own criminal conduct. Dragonovic's colleagues organized network because of fanatical Croatian nationalism, hatred of Serbs. Justification for Christians shielding mass murderers from justice? Dragonovic, in a memo to the American ambassador to Italy in May stated that since the Communists in Yugoslavia have no justice, and argued that the most culpable should not be classed as war criminals by distinguishing between those who had personally done the deeds, and the political leaders of Pavelic's government. "To be a state official, even with a high function or member of Ustashia, doesn't need signify that the persons in question are war criminals." Dragonovic only classified those who did the killing as criminals, not those who gave the orders. Sinic states that "You can almost talk about interlocking directorships between western intelligence and the Vatican of this period." If this is true, Pius XII is implicated in a greater conspiracy than just Dragonovic's Ratline. The Vatican has gone to great lengths to spoil Western credibility when Western reports implicate the church. Yet, British and Italians confirm America's information. Two key witnesses inside the church confirm Vatican's involvement. Monsignor Milan Sinic and Father Vilim Cicelja, both confidants of Father Dragonovic were certain Senior Vatican officials knew about Dragonovic's work and approved of it. Simcic testified that Dr. Dragonovic and Montini were together very many times. Simcic said Montini utilized Ratlines himself to smuggle various people. Since Montini and Pius met daily, it's inconceivable that Pius didn't know. (Montini was eventually elected Pope Paul VI. Father Cecelja went even farther than Simcic, claiming Dragonovic was the Holy See's official representative for the emigration of all Nazi groups, not just the Croatians. U.S. intelligence identifies Dragonovic as the Vatican's DP resettlement chief as they were using his ratlines to smuggle their own agents out of Europe. Vatican is heavily involved with San Girolamos finances. Father Dominic Mandic controlled them. He was treasurer of official Croatian section of Pope's Assistance Commission for Refugees. Its principle task was "to arrange the placing against Italian currency of the gold, jewelry and foreign exchange deposited by high ranking Ustas officials."In reality, they were the valuables of Pavelic's murdered victims, stolen by fleeing Ustashi's. Father Mandic was the senior Franciscan official who placed the order's printing presses at San Girolamos' disposal so false identity cards could be provided to fugitives. Mandic was also treasurer of Dragonovic's smuggling operation. Britain's SIS had not helped the Vatican for nothing. They wanted agents to infiltrate Communist Yugoslavia to gather intelligence and conduct terrorist strikes on strategic targets and communist personel, especially the secret police. Krizari, former Pavelic officers, fund their operations partly from treasure stolen from Croatia. British used part of it to finance Croat resistance in Yugoslavia. American Cardinal Spellman receives a petition from 5,000 Ukrainians held as collaborators to not be sent to the Soviet Union for punishment (execution, most likely). Spellman sends petition to the National Catholic Welfare Conference, who passes it on to the State Department. Meanwhile, the British had just finished their first efforts to protect Ukrainian "Freedom Fighters," (collaborators). Little screening was done prior to their release. U.S., Britain, issued top secret document FAN 757. They agreed all screening of Nazi collaborators be done by a Joint Review Committee. In reality, it was meant to disguise the Vatican's smuggling of collaborators. Nazis were rushed through the Vatican's ratlines before they could be officially identified. The pool of ex-Nazis was growing. Washington, London, Vatican responsible for following Cold War disasters, Nazi's gaining foothold in foreign policy organizations that have affected policy through the 1990's. Vatican promised U.S. help in 1948 elections. Despite CIA objections, money sent to Vatican from Angleton's friends in the State Depts. Special Projects Division. Vatican links its ratlines, other anti-communist activities with America because America backed its plans with money. Truman demanded to know who was smuggling Nazis to America. Dulles had to shelve plans to send his Nazis to U.S. until Dewey won 1948 elections. Dulles used Vatican ratlines to move his Nazis to South America. Disguised Nazis as Soviet defectors. CIC agents Italy stop hunting Nazis, starts recruiting them for use against Soviets. Evita Peron, wife of Argentina's strongman General Juan Peron, under the guise of a diplomatic mission to the heads of various European leaders, helps to coordinate the escape of Nazi leaders to Argentina. Gen. Peron made available some 1,000 blank passports to Nazi collaborators looking to flee Europe. Ludwig Freude, the managing director of the Banco Aleman Transatlantico in Buenos Aires, acted as trustee for hundreds of millions of German Reichmarks that Hitler's top aides sent to Argentina at the end of the war. Freude's son, Rodolfo, one of Juan Peron's private secretaries and chief of Argentina's internal security apparatus, guided the fleeing Nazis into Argentinian life. Apparently Nazi cash helped Peron win Argentina's Presidency. Evita Peron met with Spain's Generalissmo Francisco Franco, a "Neutral" Fascist during WWII. Franco allowed many of the fleeing Nazis hide in Spain while arrangements were made for more permanent homes.Otto Skorenzy, the purported leader of the clandestine organization coordinating the ratlines, used millions of dollars looted from the Reichsbank to smuggle Nazis to Argentina. Skorzeny set up the legendary ODESSA organization to help ex-Nazis export themelves ... and Fascism ... to South America. An American State Department report from May had termed the Vatican "The largest single organization involved in the illegal movement of emigrants." Evita Peron visited Pope Pius to clear up some lose ends with the Vatican in moving the Nazis to Argentina. documents that wouldn't see light until the 90's from Argentina's Central Bank showed that during the war, the Swiss Central Bankand a dozen Swiss private banks maintained suspicious gold accounts in Argentina. Peron's ambassador to Switzerland, Benito Llambi, had undertaken a secret mission to create a veritable emmigration service to coordinate the escape of the Nazis, particularly those with scientific skills. Bern, Switzerland police intelligence files show the secret Nazi emmigration office was located in downtown Bern. It was staffed by three Argentines ... Carlos Fuldner, Herbert Helfferich and Dr. Georg weiss. A Swiss police report termed them "110% Nazis."Fuldner had come to Germany to study in 1931. He joined the SS and later was recruited into German foreign intelligence. According to a U.S. State Department report, Fuldner fled to Madrid at the end of the war with a planeload of stolent art. He then moved to Bern where he posed as a representative of the Argentinian Civil Air Transport Authority. His job was to help the first wave of Nazi emigres. Among the first of the Nazis to reach Buenos Aires by the ratlines was Erich Priebke, an SS officer who had been accused of a mass execution of Italian civilians. Along with him was Croat Ustashi leader Ante Pavelic, concentration camp commander Josef Schwamberger, and Auschwitz doctor, Josef Mengele. In 1951, Holocaust archetect Adolf Eichmann arrived in Argentina where he posed as a technician. Fuldner found Eichmann a job at the Argentina plant of Mercedes-Benz. Eichamann was later discovered, taken to Israel where he was convicted and hanged for mass murder in 1962. Documents also reveal that the head of the Swiss Federal Police, Heinrich Rothmund and a former Swiss intelligence officer, Paul Schaufelberger both helped in the illegal Argentinian emigration soffice in Bern. a 1948 memo instructs safe passage for 16 "Refugees" who, the memo says, have Swiss ID cards and return Visas. Argentina's new Nazis paid for their freedom by designing Argentina's first combat jet..the "Pulque," built in Argentina by German aircraft designer Kurt Tank of the Focke-Wulfe company. He and his engineers were in Argentina thanks to the ratlines that ran through Bern. Ignacio Klich, the spokesman for an independent commission looking into the Nazi-Argentine collaboration, said he believes the wartime business between Nazi Germany and Argentina was conducted routinely by Swiss fiduciaries.One of the subjects of investigation is Johann Wehrli, a private Zurich banker. One of his sons opened a branch office in Buenos Aires. Investigators suspect is was used to handle transactions between Nazis and Argentina. The assets apparently included gold taken from Jews and other Nazi victims. The Union Bank of Switzerland later absorbed the Wehrli bank. Supposedly, German Nationals paid Swiss officials as much as 200,000 Swiss francs for temporary residence documents needed to board flights out of Switzerland.

 

1948 — Truman approves a National Security Council proposal to fund and arm "underground resistance" against Communist countries. Czech government falls because U.S. fails to support as promised. Communist party takes over with help of Red Army. General Stephen Chamberlin states that U.S. public won't support increased defense spending without sufficient alarm about Russia. Gehlen's studies of Red Army during WWII used as "facts" to convince superiors of Red threat. Clay sends strongly worded telegram warning of Soviet threat, based on Gehlen's information. Telegrams leaked to press. Washington policymakers convinced. "U.S. News and World Report" claims Soviet Union is #1 military power. Truman stops military spending cuts, steps up construction of atomic weapons, dumps millions of dollars into Gehlen's organization for more information. Nazis start being used for strategic instead of tactical purposes. Operation Bloodstone formed-used Nazi leaders (cream of the crop). Frank Lindsay (pro-nazi) put in charge of Policy coordination (Pres. Nixon [1968] appoints him to a secret task force on CIA reorganization). Communists expected to win Italian election; Catholic church (Vatican) and Alan Dulles, William Colby, Frank Wisner, James Angleton, others put together crash program of propaganda, sabotage and secret funding of Christian Democrat party. U.S. government spends $350 million dollars in civil and military spending. Francis Cardinal Spellman was go-between for Vatican, CIA. Spellman tells Secretary of State Marshall that money came from captured Nazi funds. Joint Chiefs of Staff amplify Bloodstone, Gehlen organization is linked. National Security Council Resolution 10/2 is created, authorizing clandestine, propaganda, economic warfare, sabotage, anti-sabotage demolition and evacuation measures. Hides U.S. government involvement and expanded CIA role. Intelligence analysis was handled by Evron Kirkpatrick, husband of future ambassador to UN, Jeanne Kirkpatrick. Comprehensive list of Nazis unavailable because Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) "lost the file." Nazi-like propaganda issued over Radio Free Europe reported a document supposedly a translation of a soviet campaign of "general terror" against citizens of Iron Curtain countries. Document proven fake, nevertheless used until 1956. A full-scale post-nuclear attack guerilla war planned against Soviets using former Vlaslov and Waffen SS troops in a major war. Pentagon assigns five wings of B-29 bombers to the emigre army. By now there are so many Ukranians in England, that they form their own political conventions. Father Josephat Jean, representing the Uniate Catholics at the Ukranian Union, along with Cardinal Griffin. Convention reports they anticipate " ... a large increase in membership in the near future when the men of the SS 'galizien'(sic) who have hitherto been prisoners of war become free workmen." Head of Union, Garelon, in a memo to British Foreign Office official William Wilkinson, said Galician SS members had to sign an application form stating they "voluntarily applied to serve." This made them, legally, ineligible for refugee status. Garelon defended this by saying the Galicians's service to the Nazis wasn't very important, and the British had bent the rules before. He planned, though, to move the Galician's elsewhere. The British, meanwhile, wanted to merge all the Galician's and other Ukranians into a massive anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations. British government cables all Commonwealth countries to stop all investigations of Nazi war criminals. Possibly sent by Lord Shawcross. British intelligence was recruiting war criminals for covert projects like Intermarium, Prometheus, and NTS. British sheltered Pavelic, smuggled Ustashi gold, and arranged mass escapes of suspected war criminals and/or collaborators. British asked Vatican for help in resettling "Grey" Nazis, and asked America to sabotage screening process. To date, British are the only Western nation who refuses to open their intelligence files on the period. According to authors Aarons and Loftus, the only things the British did well was cover up. National Security Agency (NSA) is formed to monitor all international cables. Subjects of their surveillance, though, are not limited to foreign nationals. Surveillance continues through 1973, under Operations Minaret and Shamrock. NSA ended Minaret because of violation of statutes prohibiting domestic surveillance. They try justifying operations claiming that domestic dissidents want to destroy the American government, making them "natural allies of the foreign enemies of the U.S." As far as the record shows, NSA'S efforts were no more successful than any other domestic intelligence pursuits of the Vietnam era by either Johnson or Nixon administrations. Internal Revenue Service begins revoking tax exempt status of organizations on the Attorney General's list of subversive organizations. Among those on the list: The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, The School of Jewish Studies, the Hollywood Writers Guild, the Ohio School of Social Science, among many others.

 

1949 — Unvouchered (secret) funds ($5 million) authorized by Congress to "a component of the national military establishment;" money was then transferred to the State Department for secret disbursement (so as to conceal U.S. government as the source). "100 Persons" law passes. It allows CIA Director, Attorney General, and the Commissioner of Immigration to allow "questionable aliens" into the country if they are "in the interests of National security or are essential to the furtherance of the National intelligence mission." CIA defies Congress's demand for an agency audit. Prototype for terrorist actions such as U.S. undertook in Southeast Asia, Cuba, Nicaragua and other places occurs when attempted overthrow of Ukranian government fails. Some American agents find themselves involved with escape networks, smuggling thousands of Nazi war criminals to safety in the Western Hemisphere. Gen. Hoyt Vandenburg plans 70 atomic attack targets in Soviet Union. 250 Albanians stage "Bay of Pigs" style raids on Albania. All fail. NSC 86, NSCID 13, NSCID 14 (directives) institutionalized Nazis in policy. 13 authorized their use overseas, 14 authorized use in this country. Both authorized clandestine funding of private refugee organizations to ensure cooperation. 14 also authorized domestic operations as long as activities were conducted through emigre organizations. This violated CIA charter. Law enforcement crack down on non-prescription barbituates triggers 800% increase in use.

 

1950 — "Technical Service Groups" plan to eliminate more than 40 German Social Democrat leaders who weren't "anti-communist" enough. Plot discovered in 1952. West German Parliament officially wonders if U.S. government was aware of the plans. U.S. CIC agents take charge of those captured, hide them from W. German civil authorities. By winter, most senior levels of U.S. gov't had decided to abrogate wartime pledge to bring Nazi criminals to justice. CIA wants congress to authorize 15 thousand CIA sponsored Imimgrants. Congress authorizes 500. CIA sidesteps, gets Nazis and anti-Communists in through emigre organizations. At least 100 million dollars spent on this through 1960. U.S. Army convinces congress to pass the Lodge act allowing 12,500 foreign nationals to enlist in U.S. army for five years in return for U.S. citizenship. Most were decent people, but CIA mixed Gestapo and collaborators in with them. In a study between 1950 and 1960, the U.S. Justice department estimated that nearly 10 thousand Nazi war criminals entered the country. The report says Justice doesn't think the security agencies were involved. Vatican claims it has collected enough information about Soviet attrocities in every occupied zone to prove attrocities. Vatican increases anti-Soviet propaganda. Soviets reciprocate with anti-Catholic and anti-religious propaganda. Congress passes Internal Security Act, gives official expression to the Communist Conspiracy theory. Congress passes Internal Security Act of 1950. Anti-sedition law aimed at Communist Action, Communist Front or (after 1954) Communist infiltrated groups and their members.Essentially made membership in the Communist Party illegal, though it was never successfully enforced. In the U.S. archives is a film of Ronald Reagan raising money for one of Dulles's front groups that laundered money to the Fascist "freedom fighters." Reagan's intelligence chief, William Casey, headed another front group, "The International Rescue Committee" that helped fugitives with their immigration problems. Internal Security Act also permits the revocation of tax exempt status of communist or communist-front organizations. The IRS assumes it has the right to revoke exempt status from any group It thinks is subversive. Since that time, IRS has had no qualms about pulling exemptions, investigating, harrassing, suing in court for collections of taxes, real or imagined, against whatever contemporary enemy the government has. For example, in 1991, country music singer Willie Nelson speaks out for relegalization of Cannabis. IRS, within a few weeks, charges Nelson with a huge tax bill they claimed he owed, and confiscated practically everything he owned, even down to his guitar. In 1993 the IRS claims the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) owed over 50 thousand dollars in taxes dating back to the early '70's. George Bush gets help from his uncle, George Walker Jr.and William Farrish's British banker friends to eventually set up Zappata Oil in Texas. Oil rigs put in strategic locations for the British and American intelligence communities. Farrish becomes chariman of Bush's failed 1964 Senate campaign. Farrish invested his inherited "Auschwitz" money to back Bush's successful 1966 congressional race. When Bush went to Congress, Farrish went to the Zappata board.

 

1951 — Entire male, 18-34, unmarried, physically fit population of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia were declared "politically acceptable" by army. Army considers Jews at the bottom of the list. Of those immigrants who enlisted in the army, 25% sent to confidential assignments. Most of the remainder became the nucleus of the Green Berets, including many former Nazis. U.S. gov't bankrolls Grambach who gets more than a million dollars a year. U.S. government begins purge of officials for not being extreme right wing. Smith Act upheld by Supreme Court. Juan Peron wins re-election as President of Argentina, thanks to immense wealth brought in by Nazis who fled Europe. These same Nazis are deeply entrenched within the military-industrial complex of Argentina.

 

1952 — By now there are 211 men in the Lodge Act army. U.S. army eased language and literacy requirements. Adjutant Gen. General Edward Whitsell rules civilian laws that barred ex-Nazis did not apply to the Lodge act. Ruling went unnoticed because it was issued with "Restricted Security Information Status."

 

1953 — Congressman Carroll Reece of Tennessee heads Reece Commit-tee, looking into major tax exempt foundations linked to the international money cartel. Investigation centered on those foundations and trusts controlled by Rockefellers, Fords, Carnegie, and Guggenheim foundations. The findings were so overwhelming many in Congress find it difficult to believe. As usual, nothing is done. 13.5 million persons in America subject to loyalty-security requirements. Bureau makes 26 thousand field investigations, most involving associations with the 197 Communist, Fascist (?) and totalitarian organi-zations. Third Presidential directive to FBI authorizing surveillance activities. Published regulations of Attorney General's office outlines Bureaus intelligence mission, inaccurately. The Bureau shall: "Carry out the Presidential directive of 9/6/39, as affirmed by Presidential directives of 1/8/43, 7/24/50 and 12/15/53, designating the Federal Bureau of Investigation to take charge of investigative work in matters relating to espionage, sabotage, subversive activities and related matters."Bureau asked President Eisenhower to legitimize activities. It used previous directives, except Roosevelt's original (that limited power) for an informal statement requesting cooperation by law enforcement as well as "Patriotic organizations and individuals" in reporting violations of the Atomic Energy Act to the FBI. In short, Bureau twisted the arm of history to force a permanent grant of authority, regardless of whether they have the right or not. Refugee Relief Act passed, Sen. Joseph McCarthy instigates, forces Congress to relax laws to permit entry into U.S. of Nazis who had only fought against Soviets. (circa) Hoover is so into publicity that a media member not praising the Bureau is often placed under scrutiny. Charleston,W. VA. "Gazette" critisized Bureau; all critisisms were sent to Hoover marked "urgent." Individual editors were investigated, one being labeled a "scurrilous character." and publisher W.E. Chilton III was accused of writing editorials favorable to Red China, and highly critical of the American Legion and Bureau. Paper was removed from Bureau mailing list. When one of its reporters was investigating police brutality against blacks in Georgia, Hoover ordered the Atlanta office to not cooperate in anyway, since the Gazette had been "consistently hostile" to the Bureau.

 

1955 — Rand Corporation formed. Most likely a CIA "Think Tank." Most of its funding comes from CIA. (Circa) Jack Ruby becomes acquainted with Cuba's Prio and helps him smuggle weapons to anti-Batista forces in Cuba. A link between Ruby and Prio is made by several people after the Oswald murder. The CIA claims it has no information, having only looked for information under the name of "Ruby." Jack "Ruby"'s name is really Jack Rubenstein. Robert Maheu, who had operated an investigative and "problem solving" agency in Washington, becomes an employee of Howard Hughes, handling Hughes's political and governmental affairs. During World War II, he worked under Guy Bannister in the Chicago FBI office. One of Maheu's first jobs for Hughes was squelching a news story about Hughes Loaning Richard Nixon's brother Donald $205,000.00. Juan Peron is overthrown in Argentina. Flees to Spain where he lived as a guest of Franco.

 

1956 — U.S. Narcotic Control Act provides death penalty for selling Heroin to minors. Richard Nixon authorizes Dulles' covert projects as Vice President under Eisenhower, during Eisenhower's illnesses, 1956 and 1957. Nixon's career would have been destroyed had public knowledge of the Soviet penetration of the Nazi networks had been a reality.The Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit (LEIU) formed as a private intelligence sharing network. They coordinated exchange of information between private agencies about radicals and radical organizations. By using a law enforcement cover, LEIU has managed to evade attempts by the courts to verify its reports. LEIU also recycled agents with blown covers.

 

1957 — Supreme Court narrows scope of Smith act, in that it could not be applied to the mere advocacy of forceable overthrow of the government, nor the discussion of abstract doctrine, but could be applied to incitement to action or preparation for overthrow.

 

1958 — The book "Masters of Deceit," ostensibly written by Hoover hits market. Actually, several agents wrote the book with Hoover's name on it (Ghost Writing). Many of "Hoover's" writings were not actually written by Hoover himself, but he was more than willing to take credit for them. "Masters of Deceit" was put out as the treatise on Communists and their tactics. Subsequent investigation of book proved most of the statements false or misleading, a common thread in "Hoover's" writing. Fidel Castro takes over Cuba. An obscure directive by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, attributed to Admiral Radford authorizes the military to indoctrinate Civilians on cold war issues, especially the communist threat. The message: We are losing to the Communists; civilians have a choice between appeasement or surrender and all out war. Ultra rightists (fascists) are thrilled about the directive.

 

1959 — Campaign against glue sniffing causes increase in Cocaine smuggling by 1969. FBI creates "extremist" category of subversives, adds the Black Panthers, American Indian Movement, Students for a Democratic Society, Weathermen (Weather Underground) and the Ku Klux Klan. Groups added because of a committment to tactical violence in the pursuit of political change. With these groups, FBI assumed that since they thought the groups would be violent, the FBI has grounds to surveil for prevention. NATO intelligence services reviewed anti-Soviet failures, conclude support for emigre organizations should be abandoned because they were " ... Hopelessly riddled with Communist spies." (NATO'S West German liason was Hans Felfe, top Communist mole in Gehlen's organization.) Robert Edward Webster, Lee Harvey Oswald "defect" to Soviet Union ... both probably CIA agents. Webster defects just before Oswald. Webster was working for Rand Development Corp., which might have been a front for Rand Corp. and CIA. When he returned to U.S., Webster's return was sponsored by Rand Corp. Oswald returned one month later. When he reached Russia, Oswald denounced U.S. citizenship, was interviewed at U.S. Embassy in Moscow by Richard E. Snyder, identified by East German intelligence as a CIA agent. Oswald allegedly received orders before long to return to U.S. He contacted Snyder who told him that since his citizenship denunciation was only verbal and in a hand-written note, he was eligible to return to America. Vice President Richard Nixon plans "Operation 40," the invasion of Cuba which came to be known as "Bay of Pigs." Nixon planned for the invasion to occur as soon as he won the 1960 Presidential race. CIA agent George Bush was put in charge of recruiting for the task. The anti-communist community (CIA, FBI, etc.) wanted an invasion of Cuba. Howard Hunt was in charge of forming a govenment in exile that would take over after Castro was deposed. Originally, he was to set up in Costa Rica or Mexico, but the political climate there wasn't right, so he set up the "Cuban Revolutionary Front" in Miami. He also secured the use of a large plantation in Guatemala which was turned into a training base. CRF included hardline anti-communists Manuel Artime of the Movement of Revolutionary Recovery and Jose Ignacio of the Christian Democratic Movement. Artime ran a student group that opposed Batista (whom Castro overthrew). Artime joined Castro and was put in charge of collective farming, but he had an argument with he Guevarra and had to go underground. Artime was exfiltrated from Cuba by Bernard Barker. CRF and its allies failed to cause a popular uprising in Cuba, so an invasion was planned. All was well until Kennedy won election of 1960. Kennedy ordered the CIA to draft a new Cuban Constitution and gave the go-ahead for an invasion, but he demanded leftist elements opposing Castro to be included. Cuban Revolutionary Council (CRC) formed, and a new liason officer installed, since Hunt refused to work with leftists. No Americans were to be included in the invasion. Air strikes were planned, with planes with Cuban markings. Once Castro's air force was crippled, ground forces would move in. Once a beachead was established, Organization of American States (OAS) would be asked for help. 27 terrorists were arrested in Cuba for plotting against Castro. The first air strikes were unsuccessful; one plane landed in Miami. Hunt instigates a New York ad agency to make a press release stating pilots of the planes were "defecting members of Castro's Air Force with whom the Cuban Revolutionary Council were in touch with." Most reporters didn't believe the story. Kennedy cancelled the second air strike when the first story seemed transparent. CIA troops commanded by Artime were soundly defeated by Castro and his Air Force. Artime was taken prisoner. Hunt blames Kennedy pretty much solely for the fiasco, claimed Kennedy was part of the "international communist conspiracy." Hunt does also blame General Cabel (CIA) because he asked Kennedy for the second air strike instead of just doing it. Hunt possibly tries to distance himself from Cabel. (Cabel's brother Earl was the Mayor Dallas when Kennedy was killed there, and was instrumental in choosing the parade route, and knew Jack Ruby). Cabel was fired from the CIA and went to work for Pacific Corporation, the parent company of Air America, the CIA-run carrier that was heavily involved in Opium traffic in Southeast Asia. Allen Dulles forced to retire from CIA. Both were moved out because of BOP.

 

1960 — Kennedy elected President, in spite of Prescott Bush's campaign managing and Gerald Ford's fundraising for Nixon. Plans of anti-communist establishment thwarted by election. Kennedy doesn't back up Bay of Pigs invaison, consequently alienates the most reactionary and powerful elements in America: CIA, Foreign Policy Establishment, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and organized crime organizations (who lost a lot of money when Castro took over Cuban casino operations). In his farewell address, outgoing President Eisenhower, America's hero of World War II, two-term president who, nevertheless, permitted Nazi infiltra-tion into American government and allowed anti-communists (fascists) to take over, warned of encroachment on the part of the military and industry. He urged Americans to "guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence" by what has come to be called the Military-Industrial Complex. America pays no heed. Future President George Bush, working in the CIA, begins recruiting exiled Cubans for an invasion of Cuba. Recruited former Batista head of police, Felix Rodriquez. Rodriquez had fled Cuba along with Batista, Frank Sturgis and Rafael Quintero. Bush denies being involved with the Agency before his appointment by President Ford in 1976. Other records indicate Bush was a senior official of the Agency in at least 1959, probably earlier. Bush worked with fellow Texansk, oilman Jack Crichton and Air Force General Charles Cabel. Cabel was to coordinate air support for the invasion.

 

1961 — Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba fails miserably, with 1100 operatives taken prisoner. General Cabel partially blamed for failure since he asked President Kennedy for permission for air support. Kennedy said no. CIA and associates blame Kennedy, promise revenge. Three ships, painted to look like civilian vessels, are delivered to CIA agent George Bush who renames them Barbara, for his wife, Houston, for his home town, and Zappata for his oil company. The same people involved in the Bay of Pigs are the same people involved in the 1963 assasination of President Kennedy and the Watergate affair in 1973. Bush later denied he had any connection with the CIA until 1976 when appointed its Director by then President Gerald Ford. President Kennedy fires Dulles as CIA chief. A large number of OPC files were "routinely destroyed." Wisner had already committed suicide; Dulles betrayed his country by taking the Vatican secret with him. Angleton placed in charge of investigation of collaboration. He made sure that politically embarrassing reports never left his office. During Nixon administration, State Dept. secretly informed Australian government they were ignoring Ustashi fugitives in America because they were useful in turning out ethnic votes in several U.S. state and local elections. Single Nation Treaty signed by major countries of the world. Agreement was spearheaded by Harry Anslinger. In a 1968 interview Anslinger laughed at efforts to relegalize because of the treaty. They agreed to keep controlled substances like Cannabis, Heroin, etc. illegal. Richard Helms becomes Deputy Director of Plans. Tracy Barnes, who worked with Hunt in overthrowing Arbenez of Guatemala in '50's, forms Domestic Operations Division and appoints Hunt its chief of covert actions. Division takes on jobs that no one else in Agency wants. Many men connected with BOP were moved into the new unit. Kennedy reportedly says he's under great pressure to have Castro killed. Hunt most likely one of the advisors in this regard. Almost all of future attempts on Castro's life could eventually be traced back to Hunt. (Circa) Robert Maheu is alleged to be in charge of the CIA's part of the effort to assassinate Castro. He probably used the same cover Hunt was using ... Mullen and Company, a "public relations" firm located across the street from the White House. Mullen was a former press aide to President Eisenhower and he ran General Marshall's propaganda arm in Europe (the Marshall Plan). Mullen knew Howard Hunt, who had also worked for Marshall's ECA. One of Mullen's biggest clients was General Foods whose Washington representative, Douglas Caddy, worked out of Mullen's office. Caddy would later become Hunt's lawyer. He was a Goldwater supporter and helped form the Young American's for Freedom with William F. Buckley Jr. and Robert Bennett. Caddy was also active in Youth for Nixon and was a member of the Lawyer's Committee to Reelect the President. Hunt has said that Mullen and Co. always had close ties to the CIA and that the Agency had paid for Mullen's Europe-an office. Mullen also maintained an office in Mexico City, In 1963, according to Phillip Agee. When Hunt "retired" from the Agency in 1970, he went to work for Mullen the next day. Former Nixon administrator and Hughes' employee Robert E. Bennett buys Mullen and Co. in 1970. Bennett brings the Howard Hughes account with him, and helps Nixon set up dummy groups to raise campaign funds. Hunt most likely still working for the CIA while working for Mullen. Strong evidence that Loran Hall's Free Cuba Committee is likely a Mullen and Co. front. Mullen may have also paid for a rifle identical to the one Oswald supposedly used against Kennedy. Kennedy denounces the ultra right wing. In the wake of his attack, IRS responds to suggestions by President Kennedy and Attorney General Robert Kennedy that the IRS investigate right wing groups. Commission adviser Mitchell Rogovin, also a liason between the CIA and the IRS, supplies a list of right wing groups. Task force is called "Ideological Organizations Project." IRS essentially goes through the motions of investigating right wing groups, but still concentrates on the left wing. It amounts to cosmetic hiding of bias. Costs of investigating groups, who usually have very modest treasuries, is prohibitive.

 

1962 — Congress passes legislation increasing F.D.A.'s ability to limit drug sales. F.D.A. halts legal production of L.S.D. causes skyrocketing use by 1970. Kennedy makes deal with Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev that if he'll remove the missiles from Cuba, Kennedy won't invade. This is the famous "Cuban Missile Crisis" result. Attorney General Robert Kennedy is the chief investigator for the McClellan Committee, which looks into organized crime in America. Several crime figures, such as Edward Partin, Phillip Scheib, Dennis Mower, Eugene Hall, and others, are discovered to be involved in smuggling weapons to anti-Castro Cubans in Cuba. Jimmy Hoffa very heavily investigated by committee for many things, including gun-running. Hoffa had been associated with Meyer Lansky. FBI investigates connec-tions between Hoffa and Jack Ruby. Officially declares there is no connection, however some of the Bureau's own files contradict that conclusion. Hoffa is eventually pardoned by Richard Nixon. The deal was set up by Charles Colson.

 

1963 — President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. (July) Lee Harvey Oswald passes out pro- Castro literature with the CIA'S New Orleans address (544 Camp St.) Evidence exists in Warren Commission report #CD1080 that Oswald's cousin, Dorothy Murret, was a CIA agent. When Oswald was in the Marine Corps, he was stationed at Atsugi, a Japanese base devoted to training intelligence agents. The U2 spy plane was kept on this base. Oswald was taught Russian as part of his military training, and had security clearance. He may have been a part of a plan to plant an agent in Soviet Union. Given a hardship discharge, to lend credence to his defection in 1959. COMINFIL, the Communist Infiltration program of Bureau employed against Afro-American civil rights movement, specifically against the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and its leader, the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King. Racist politicians, primarily in South, urged Hoover to do something, like link the Communists to the movement. Hoover is only too happy to help. He claims (of course) that Negroes were encouraged and aided by Communists. Attorney General Robert Kennedy, in a report, stated they could find no influence. Hoover rejects report, in spite of less than 200 of an estimated 250,000 participants in the March on Washington being identified as Communist Party members. Bureau Intelligence Chief, William Sullivan, who first issued report to Kennedy, now turns around, claims "There are many Negroes who are fellow travellers, sympathizers, who aid the Party, knowingly or unknowingly, but do not qualify as members. These we must not ignore. The old Communist principle still holds: Communism must be built with non-Communist hands.'" Though it was never proved, King associate Stanly Levison was accused by Bureau of having Communist ties. By 1964, Hoover, as usual with no justification, claimed he has proof of Communist influence in the Civil Rights Movement. Same tactics used against American Civil Liberties Union, American Friends Service Committee, National Lawyers Guild, and others. Hoover outraged at King's criticism of Bureau, upset when Marquette University awarded an honorary degree to King, after giving an honorary degree to Hoover himself some years earlier. Hoover really upset when Time Magazine named King "Man of the Year" and Hoover had not been so honored. Hoover enraged when King wins Nobel Peace Prize. Hoover refers to King as "The most notorious liar" and as a "moral degenerate." Hoover, Bureau, contin-ues trying to link King to Communists. The name "Frank Sturgis" first appears in an FBI report dated Nov. 27. Sturgis's real name is Fiorini. Howard Hunt, in several testimonies and investigations, claims to not have known Sturgis until 1972. Evidence indicates, though, that he did know Fiorini, possibly as early as 1949. Hunt wrote a spy thriller whose main character, Hank Sturgis, had a lifestyle too close to Fiorini's to be coincidental. Sturgis, since at least the early '50's had worked in Cuba on various matters of intrique, and worked with Castro just prior to his takeover. There were several occasions Sturgis had to have known and worked with Hunt (Author's italics). One of the pictures of the Tramps from the Kennedy assassination very closely matches Sturgis  A long distance operator in Mexico City monitors an international phone call. She hears someone say "The Castro plan is being carried out. Bobby is next. Soon the atomic bombs will begin to rain and they won't know from where." A trce of the numbers reveals one of them belongs to Emilio Nunez Portundo, a former ambassador to the U.S. during the Batista regime. He's a right-wing political figure in the Cuban exile community. He reportedly had become "bitter" at the U.S. for not following through on an invaison of cuba. The Protective Research Division of the Secret Service investigates, creates a file on Portundo. The other number belongs to Jose Anotonio Cabarga of Mexico City. He is supposedly a good investigator, who could develop information. According to Portundo, "Cabarga was in close contact with the U.S. embassy in Mexico City." Despite telegrams to Washington, by an honest Secret Service agent, who worked under Aragon, the Washington Secret Service did not send an agent to interview Cabarga. Case is closed. (early falls) Loren Hall was arrested by Federal agents while taking a trailer full of weapons to the the Interpen-IAB training camp at No Name Key in Florida. Hall is another soldier of fortune who fought alongside Castro during the takeover. Arrested in 1959 on a charge of training recruits to overthrow the Nicaraguan govern-ment. Major William Morgan, Frank Sturgis and Alex Rorke participated in a similar plot. At least two of these three were CIA agents. Hall was the subject of a very strange FBI investigation. There is no Justice Department letterhead, insignia, nor other identifier on the report, and the report is unsigned. The report is credited to S.A. Gamberling, in an index listing the report in the National Archives. Gamberling, at the time though, worked in the Dallas FBI office. The report deals mainly with a private detective, Richard Hathcock, Loran Hall, and Interpen-IAG figure Gerald Patrick Hemming. On Sept. 18, Hall takes a rifle out of pawn that was described as being identical to the rifle Oswald allegedly uses against Kennedy. The FBI investigates, interviews a man who says he saw the transaction, but doesn't talk with Hall or Hemming. Hathcock is associated with International Anti-Communist Brigade, which was run by Frank Sturgis. The FBI checks no further. If they had, they would have found an entire network of anti-Castro organizations, all funded by the CIA, are connected in this incident,and can all be traced back to Howard Hunt. Loran Hall was an officer of the Free Cuba Committee; the check used to get the rifle out of hock was written on FCC's check. Hall may have been the unknown tramp in Dallas. There is a rifle identical to the one Oswald allegedly used, purchased at a Pawn Shop by a CIA front organization, one month before a President is assassinated. The FBI, as usual, fails to investigate, lends credence to a furthering of the cover up of the Kennedy murder. During the Watergate affair, Richard Nixon also funneled money through anti-Castro Cuban groups. (Nov. 23) Dallas Police officer J.D. Tippit, who could have been part of the conspiracy, assigned to kill Oswald, is also a known weekend John Birch Society member, and is a "double" for Bernard Weisman, who placed the welcoming ad in a Dallas newspaper for Kennedy's visit. There is evidence of a Tippit-Jack Ruby meeting prior to this date. Tippit was out of his patrol district when he stopped Oswald. Evidence exists that Oswald did not kill Tippit. Witnesses described the assailant, but the descriptions do not fit Oswald. Nevertheless, there is some evidence against Oswald. He had powder burns on his hands, indicating he had fired a handgun. There were no powder burns on his face, which would indicate he had recently fired a rifle. The weapon that was used to kill Tippit was found in Oswald's possession with his fingerprints on it. Oswald might have figured out he was the patsy for the assassination, may have thought Tippit was going to kill him, which would account for Oswald's run to a theatre (where there would be witnesses). We know Oswald has CIA ties. If he actually did kill Kennedy, why did he buy a rifle commercially? Would not the CIA have supplied an untraceable weapon? Watergater Eugenio Martinez did tell a Harper's magazine reporter in 1973 that doing so would put distance between Oswald and the CIA. During Oswald's interrogation, none of the federal investigators called in a stenographer nor recorded any of it. Oswald calls a press conference from jail, denies both Kennedy's and Tippit's killings, says he was "just a patsy" in the deal. It's not likely that Jack Ruby and Lee Harvey Oswald knew each other, but the common thread between the two is the CIA/Syndicate plot to kill Castro. If Webberman/Canfield's theories are correct, and Dallas police officer Tippet was supposed to kill Oswald, and bungled the job, Ruby, Tippet's overseer, would be responsible for doing it. He did. Warren Commission members were in an ideal position to cover up any CIA/Syndicate involvement in Kennedy's death. Vast majority of members and special counsels had ties to people and organizations that could be connected to the assassination. Chief Justice Earl Warren, a staunch Republican (considered a 'liberal' Republican) was easily manipulated by Nixon. Nixon had considered asking Warren to set up a similar commission to investigate Watergate. Warren states the American people would not learn the whole truth about Kennedy's assassination for a hundred years. Gerald Ford, though appearing to not want it to be generally known, was also chairman of the House Republican Caucus, and a leading member of the House Oversight Committee on the CIA. Ford was also very close to Nixon, and was considered as a running mate in 1960. Ford heard more witnesses and asked more questions than anyone else on the Commission. He used a classified transcript of Commission proceedings in his book: "Portrait of THE Assassin." He was also thought by the FBI of being the person who leaked Oswald's diary to the media. Ford was later named Vice President after Spiro Agnew's resignation in 1972. Ford became President when Nixon resigned in 1973. Ford then pardoned Nixon for the Watergate events. He then named Nelson Rockefeller as Vice President. Rockefeller himself wasn't on the Warren Commission, but two people very close to him were. John J. McCloy, almost an honorary Rockefeller family member, and his law firm, repre-sented Standard Oil during the '20's and '30's. McCloy engineered the merger of Chase and Manhattan banks, which provided David Rockefeller a strong financial base. McCloy later became Chairman of the Board of Chase Manhattan, a Director of the Rockefeller Foundation, and a board member of Rockefeller's United Fruit. He had a strong background in intelligence as assistant to the Secretary of War during World War II. McCloy was also the High Commissioner to Germany, and was appointed by Allen Dulles as a disarmament negotiator under Eisenhower. Howard Hunt has said McCloy was an important part of the power base of the Office of Policy Coordination, a predecessor of the CIA. Warren Commission Counsel William T. Coleman was Rockefeller's number two man who worked for J. Richardson Dilworth, the law firm that handled Rockefeller's assets. When Rockefeller was appointed Vice President, Coleman became Secretaryof Transportation. President Johnson appointed Allen Dulles to the Warren Commis-sion. Dulles was primarily responsible for setting up the CIA and worked very closely with Howard Hunt. Dulles also encouraged the importation of Nazis into American intelligence circles, just after World War II (see above). Dulles had also worked with Nixon on the National Security Council and was president of the Rockefeller-dominated Council on Foreign Relations, known in 1994 as a "New World Order" organi-zation. Dulles stated that he would lie to his associates about Lee Harvey Oswald and his connections to the CIA. Dulles also said his agents would be willing to lie. John Sherman Cooper, a Republican Senator from Kentucky, was on the Commission. He threatened to write a minority report if the "informational gap" on Oswald's activities in Mexico City was not adequately covered. After the Warren report was issued, Cooper never said another word about it. He was eventually appointed Ambassador to India by Nixon. Another member, Congressman Richard Russell, a democrat from Georgia, was a dissenter on the Commission, publicly stating he disagreed with the "single bullet" theory and parts of the reports on outside influences and Lee Harvey Oswald. He expressed these views on WAB-TV in Atlanta. A short time later, he died of "natural causes." Congressman Hale Boggs also had second thoughts about the Commissions findings. In 1971 he gave a speech in Congress about how the FBI had used Gestapo tactics in the investigation. A year later, Boggs was killed in a mysterious plane crash in Alaska. Shortly thereafter Alaska InterAir was the recipient of extensive government contracts in Europe and Africa. Laura Bergt, the wife of the airline's president was appointed to the National Commission on Indian Affairs,and some time later went seal hunting with William F. Buckley, Howard Hunt's good friend. Hoover pulls out the stops, wants full Bureau resources used to stop Dr. M.L. King. Hoover is outraged by King's critisism of the Bureau, awards King is given (such as being named Time Magazine's Man of the Year [especially when Hoover himself didn't get that award]) and what Hoover perceived was King's "immorality." A number of agents along with Hoover himself, tries progaganda, linking King with Communist groups. The Bureau releases a document called "Communism and the Negro Movement-A Current Analysis," ostensibly written by William Sullivan. The document was specifically meant to discredit King. Attorney General Robert Kennedy is so angered by the document, he orders it stopped immediately. Assistant Director Alan Belmont, though, says the Bureau will still disseminate the document. Hoover and Sullivan, meanwhile, try to get King replaced. They suggest using Samuel R. Pierce, a prominent Black lawyer to replace King. Pierce was never asked, nor is there evidence that he ever asked for such a job. The switch never occurs.

 

1964 — Klan-White Hate Groups program started in Bureau. Directed at 17 Ku Klux Klan groups, American Nazi Party. Bureau, however, does not give the program any priority, preferring to catch even car thieves first. Of course, "counter-subversive" program gets Bureau's top priority. Bureau's institutional racism is best seen in its systematic refusal to intervene to protect victims of federal civil rights violations on the part of local law enforcement officials, even when violations occur in the presence of agents. Nor would they warn victims when they had advance knowledge of planned attacks. Even back to 1961 when a Klan informer gave the Bureau three weeks notice of a planned beating of a group of Freedom Riders. Informer told Bureau the Klan arranged a 15 minute head start with Birmingham Police Dept. before police arrived, local Bureau office took no action, not even notifying Justice Dept. Letter by Hoover to Warren Commission admits the first description of Kennedy's assassin was "Initiated on the basis of a description furnished by an unidentified citizen who had observed an individual approximating Oswald's description running from the Texas School Book Depository (TSBD) immediately after the assassination." The description could not have been given by James Worrell, most likely the first eyewitness. He did not report seeing a man run "like a bat out of hell" from the rear of the TSBD until the next day. Oswald was still in the building. Dallas Police Sgt. D.V. Harkness went to the back of TSBD and encountered several men who said they were Secret Service agents. James Romack also saw them. lee Bowers, a worker at the railroad yard behind TSBD sighted a northbound train, stopped it for authorities. Authorities found three "tramps" on board. Bowers testified before Warren Commission and was about to elaborate on the tramps when he was cut off by Joe Ball. When Sgt. Harkness tried to talk about the Tramps, David Belin changed the subject of conversation. Tramps were turned over to Sheriff Will Fritz. Fritz refuses any details about what happend to the Tramps, except referring Michael Canfield (co-author) to the FBI. FBI, of course, knows nothing. One person near TSBD was a man inside the Daltex building who gave the name of Jim Braden, and used a credit card for identification. Los Angeles CBS producer Peter Noyes, just by checking a driver's license number discovers Jim Braden is actually Eugene Hale Brading, reportedly a gangster, with a long criminal history, long history of association with organized crime and was a charter member of the La Costa Club. La Costa Club is located 20 miles south of San Clemente, California,(home of Richard Nixon). Club financed by Teamsters Union and owned by Meyer Lansky's "front man" Moe Dalitz. La Costa frequented by quite a few organized crime figures, as well as Nixon's close friend Murray Chotiner. John Dean, John Erlichman, and H.R. Haldeman met at La Costa to get their Watergate stories together. Brading also supposedly had an office next to Ferrie's in New Orleans during the President Kennedy assassination plot, and was reportedly in Los Angeles when Robert Kennedy was murdered. The Bureau begins its anti-King program by planting microphones in King's hotel room to try and develop a file on King's private life. In the spring, "Atlanta Constitution" newspaper editor Eugene Patterson is approached by Bureau agents wanting the paper to say King was immoral. They also try to get some reporters to ask King embarrassing questions about his private life, based on what they were hoping to overhear on their surveillance. They were also hoping to derail King's publishing efforts. William Sullivan gets President Johnson's press aide Bill Moyers to disseminate Sullivan's "Communism and the Negro Movement" document around the executive branch. UN representatives, foreign office personnel, were supplied with copies of the document. Copies were given to the National Science Foundation in an effort to remove funding from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference Scholarship Fund. The Bureau also looked for a Swiss bank account in King's name. They, of course, found none. Marquette University, however, after pressure from the Bureau, rescinded the honorary degree given King earlier. Hoover also released King's files to the Baptist World Alliance, trying to discredit King. These efforts continued until King was killed. The Bureau also steps up harrassment of black organizations and individuals like Ralph Abernathy, Stokely Carmichael, Muhammed Kenyatta, Jesse Jackson, Charles Koen, and Dick Gregory, among others. The Bureau also starts COINTELPRO actions against groups like the Black Panthers. Agents caused dissension within groups and between organizations. They would infiltrate organizations, frequently steal organization money, then often plant weapons and explosives in members homes or organization headquarters.

 

1965 -- Amphetamine enforcement intensifies. Causes a "boom in Cocaine smuggling" by 1969. (Circa) British intelligence finally discovers that "Dickie" Ellis was a Nazi agent with ties to General Turkul's Soviet network. The decided it was so disturbing that Ellis had turned NTS into the most deadly component of Soviet espionage, right under their noses,that they were too embarrassed to admit to FBI or CIA that it had happened. British had sold a Soviet network, under the guise of NTS to America. British try to claim they covered up to protect former King Edward's involvement. It was SIS's reputation, not Edwards, they were protecting. President Johnson sends FBI agents to Dominican Republic to ensure that government installed by U.S. arms was free of subversives.

 

1966 — Syva division of Syntex begins biochemical research to develop urine tests for controlled substances. Four of the seven largest oil companies in the world under the control of the Rockefeller family. The largest of these, Standard Oil of New Jersey, (Exxon) controlled 371 other companies, including Humble Oil and Creole Petroleum of Venezuela. (circa) FBI used Dr. Martin Luther King's association with an alleged Communist Party member as probable cause to wiretap King. The associate reportedly does not have official membership, but is suspected of following the Communist Party line. FBI views subversive behavior as "a disease that is hereditary, chronic, incurable and contagious." FBI prepared statement for the use of Senator Long of Missouri in which the Bureau knew to be false and mis-leading. Neither the 16 Attorneys General nor the Presidents Hoover served under were ever informed about the number of "Cointelpros" or mail openings or electronic monitoring of international communications. Hoover's deceptive practices were routine. When he thought he was in trouble, he would use cryptic language and went on his way. Bureau not only denied access to files to General Accounting Office investigators, they attempted to sabotage secret instructions to field agents. President Johnson asks the Bureau to assemble dossiers on legislators and prominent citizens who oppose the Vietnam war. Johnson was particularly interested in what Senator J. William Fullbright had in conversation with a Russian ambassador.Johnson orders the Bureau to monitor the Fullbright Committee on the Vietnam war to try and compare Fullbright's statements and views with the "Communist Party Line." Johnson also wants surveillance on critics of the Warren Commission report which contained references and photographs of the critic's private sex lives. Johnson, in conjunction with Hoover, investigates a number of personal or political enemies. Some of those investigations were initiated by Hoover to score points with Johnson.

 

1967 — Franz Stangl recaptured from South America. Tells War Crimes Commission that Nazis had advance knowledge of escape networks being run by the Vatican. Other war criminals also report similar information. FBI's intelligence high command decided that National Security required an investigation of every individual who lived in a commune. They were also trying to keep an eye on Black Militants in the ghettos, and anti-Vietnam war protestors. American Anthropological Association reports that in many parts of the world, American anthropologists are suspected of being CIA agents. Many, in fact, are, having been approached by CIA with grant money in exchange for surveillance requests on the part of students and teachers who are studying abroad. "Rabble Rouser Index", otherwise known as "agitator index" authorized. Abandoned in 1971 as redundant. Black Nationalist Hate Groups program started by Bureau, has standard "Neutralize-Disrupt" strategy. Expanded in 1968 to 41 field offices. Program gets second priority to CPUSACOINTELPRO plan. Dr. Martin Luther King is assassinated. About a month after, fomer FBI agent Bill Turner realized that the composite picture of King's possible assassin very strongly resembles Lee Harvey Oswald, or an Oswald double. There has been much speculation about an Oswald double (see Coup D'Etat evidenciary photos). A Mexican artists drew the picture based on an FBI description. A few weeks later the FBI disclaimed the sketch. James Earl Ray is arrested, eventually convicted of the murder. He allows Bernard Fensterwald of the CTIA to represent him. Fensterwald's associate, Robert Livingston, had obtained a hearing for him in October. He suddenly announces that a person was going to come forward and admit that he had been hired by "four wealthy, prominent American citizens" to kill King, in exchange for clemency. Livingston also is quoted as saying "There are three men who propose to testify to give a complete expose of the King murder case." These people never materialize. Ray is in prison for the killing. There are striking similarities between Kennedy and King's kill-ings: Scoped rifles, easily traced back to their owners were used; A map with the TSBD, King's house and church were found in possession of their respective suspects; there is also a strange lack of credible witnesses in both shootings. Ray dismissed his first lawyer, keeping Fensterwald. Gerald Alch testified that James McCord funded CTIA while he was working with the CIA. Black Nationalist Hate Groups program started in Bureau. It has the standard "Neutralize-disrupt" strategy as other anti-humanist programs. Program is expanded in 1968 to 41 field offices. The program gets second priority only to Communist Party infiltrations CPUSACOINTELPRO.) Johnson orders all intelligence agencies to develop evidence that would discredit the anti-war movement. None could be developed. Cointelpro-type programs began against American Indian Movement leaders and members. Johnson, later Nixon, keeps pushing the agencies until the end of the war. In October, the CIA provides one of many useless memos about a Washington demonstration, since they could not link the demonstration to any kind of subversion. Johnson, in a private White House briefing a week later with Republican leaders, says he has the evidence of foreign influence on the anti-war movement. Johnson says he will release the evidence, but when pressed for it, he refused (he didn't have the evidence, and pushed the CIA for it. They couldn't come up with anything. The McClellan Committee is formed to look into urban rioting. They, too, try the old line of blaming communism instead of dealing with true causes of rioting such as dissatisfaction with government policies on poverty, racism, etc. The Committee specializes in attacking New Left groups using the same old intelligence gathering techniques that violate citizens rights.

 

1968 — Campaign against Cannabis use by soldiers in Vietnam results in increased use of Heroin. Congressman Wright Patman of Texas looks into manipulation by foundations and the Federal Reserve. Unable to get media attention for reports on the one world government concepts Rockefellers, Rothschilds, etc. have in mind. Richard Nixon elected President. With the anti-war movement, ghetto uprisings and campus unrest, the Nixon Administration, from the beginning, goes into a siege mentality. (Circa) Nixon's State Dept. quietly warned a few American politicians to avoid any Croatian functions on April 10 because that's when Ustashis celebrate Hitler's setting up of Pavelic's puppet government. Then-Governor of California, Ronald Reagan either didn't get the message or ignored it, as he proclaimed April 10 "Croatian Independence Day" in California. He did the same later, when he was President. He also had his picture taken with ex-Fascists and war criminals of the ABN. Despite CIA objections, Jaroslalv Stetsko was treated as an honored guest by Reagan and leaders of several other Western nations. Hoover visits newly-elected President Nixon, briefed him on Johnson's wiretapping of political targets, including Nixon. Nixon, in his "Memoirs," points out that Hoover and Johnson both shared a fascination with gossip and information. It was under Johnson that Hoover allowed the Bureau to reach its peak of political involvement. Nixon starts "Operation Integrity," his plan to keep an eye on Illinois voting practices since he attributed his 1960 presidential defeat to vote tampering on the part of Mayor Richard Daley. H. Louis Nichols put in charge; he had worked for Schenley Distilleries, whose president had been linked to Meyer Lansky. Nixon also disliked Robert Kennedy who had forced Nixon aide Murray Chotiner to testify before the McClellan committee investigating organized crime. Hitler's rise to power was preceeded by a long series of assassinations and the discrediting of his political opponents. Robert Kennedy's assassination, the Chappaquidick incident with Edward Kennedy and the attempt on George Wallace's life definitely benefited Nixon. Were they planned with Nixon's involvement? Could John Kennedy's assassination have a Nixon hand in it? (author's questions). Lawyer for H.R. Haldeman and John Erlichman after Watergate is John J.Wilson, who also represents Interhandel Corporation, which is owned by General Aniline and Film (GAF) which is itself controlled by I.G. Farben which supplied chemicals for the gas chambers in World War II. With Nixon in power, Nazis and their sympathizers held high positions in the Republican Party. Nixon's men funneled money to the Nazis. Nixon expresses admiration for Albert Speer. Columnist Jack Anderson reported that Gordon Liddy had arranged for showings of Nazi propaganda films in the National Archives for members of Nixon's administration. Martin Luther King is assassinated in Memphis,Tennessee. About a month after, former FBI agent Bill Turner realized that the composite picture of King's possible assassin very strongly resembles Lee Harvey Oswald, or an Oswald double. There has been much speculation about an Oswald double (See Coup D'Etat evidenciary photos). An artist drew the picture after being given an FBI description of the assailant. A few weeks later, after comparison to Oswald is made, FBI disclaims the sketch. James Earl Ray arrested, eventually convicted of King's murder. He allows Bernard Fensterwald of CTIA to represent him. Fensterwald's associate, Robert Livingston, had obtained a hearing for him in October. He suddenly announces that a person was going to come forward and admit that he had been hired by "four wealthy, prominent American citizens" to kill King, in exchange for clemency. Livingston also is quoted as saying "There are three men who propose to testify to give a complete expose of the King murder case." These people never surfaced. Ray is in prison for the killing. There are striking similarities between Kennedy and King's killings: Rifles with scopes which which were easily traced back to their owners were used; there is also a lack of credible witnesses in both shootings. Ray dismissed his first lawyer, keeping Fensterwald. Gerald Alch testified that James McCord funded CTIA while he was working for the CIA. FBI starts the "New Left" program, with the intent of implementing their tried and true Gestapo tactics of surveillance and investigation, plus adding the elements of dispersion and disruption under COINTELPRO. Anti-war, anti-nuclear, pro-environment, pro-"Marijuana" groups, women, gays, and others now suffer the same treatment as communists and blacks. Author Frank Donner describes it by saying: " ... The New Left COINTELPRO was an undisguised assault by the self-appointed defenders of the American way of life against an entire millieu ... "The government, however, did not count on the dedication and tenacity of what they considered "dirty Hippies." Because of an enlightened attitude among many of the Hippies, the government has only limited success in infiltrating and disrupting most groups. They did, however, target the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and its militant faction, the Weather Underground. As a result of the major riot at the Chicago Democratic National Convention, SDS leaders Abbie Hoffman and others were tried and convicted of inciting to riot. SDS survived for several years, but was severely weakened by the Chicago actions. Congress passes the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. This act authorized the federal courts to issue wiretapping warrants at the request of the Attorney General when "there is probable cause for belief that an individual is committing, has committed, or is about to commit" any one of a long list of crimes. The House Unamerican Affairs Committee (HUAC) is dissolved and replaced with the House Internal Security Committee (HISC). This committee is established to keep an eye on organizations whose goal is to overthrow the government by "any unlawful means" or "to obstruct or oppose the lawful authority of the Government of the United States in the execuition of any law or policy affecting the internal security of the United States." Just what constitutes a threat to "internal security" was not well defined, and, as we know, the hiding of actions behind the catch-all phrase "National security" became entrenched. It's used most frequently to cover up the illegal actions of members of government or political parties. Has been used mostly by Presidents Ford, Reagan and Bush, the Republican presidents since. The Gun Control Act of 1968 passes. It is directly written from Germany's Weapons Control law of 1938.

 

1969 — New York City increases drug arrests by 9000. No impact on drug availability noted. The Supreme Court rules in the Alderman case that in a criminal proceeding, the court must be notified of evidence overheard through electronic monitoring. If the court rules the evidence was illegally obtained, the defendant has the right to review the evidence to determine if the illegally gathered evidence tainted the entire case. A refusal by the government to reveal the surveillance, or its extent, is ruled as grounds for dismissal of the case. The Justice Department is upset because of the impact on their investigations on domestic dissidents. If the records of such surveillance were released, the cover of various intelligence agencies would be blown, and their illegal or quasiegal activities would be exposed. On the night before rehearing requested by Justice, Attorney General John Mitchell appeared before a Senate committee, condemned the court's decision and warned that forced disclosure of wiretapping and bugging records would endanger "National Security" and the lives of agents. The Supreme Court ends up not rehearing the case. Mitchell starts sending arguments to various courts around the country where tapping issues are involved. The "Mitchell Doctrine" as it is called, insists that the President has inherent constitutional power to authorize electronic surveillance without warrant in national security matters. Mitchell further claimed that the domestic threat was greater than the foreign threat. A California court in 1971 ruled that the government can not treat domestic radicals as if they were foreign agents from unfriendly countries. Mitchell claims that eavesdropping had not been started to prosecute the target, but as a part of an on-going domestic intelligence investigation. Various courts turn down this notion since, if there's no intent of prosecution, a citizen's rights could be violated for years without the citizen even being aware of it. In 1972 the Supreme Court in the Keith case determined the government must get a warrant where "There is no evidence of any involvement, directly or indirectly, of a foreign power." The Administration moves to dismiss a number of cases rather than have their records examined. In May of 1973, the indictment of Daniel Ellsberg was overturned because the government had violated warrant procedures. The Justice Department had authorized a tap of a former National Security Council staffer, Morton Halperin, and had gathered evidence against Ellsberg through that tap. Halperin's tap was one of 17 against government officials and journalists authorized by the Nixon administration. These were not counter subversive taps, but attempts at plugging "leaks" of information. Electronic surveillance of American citizens to trace leaks of classified information became an obsession of the Nixon Administration. "Plumbers" unit formed in the White House, with its ostensible purpose is to plug leaks of information. Involved are Nixon aides G. Gordon Liddy, Egil Krogh, John Erlichman, Howard Hunt, others. For the first time in history, the President organized an intelligence unit working entirely outside of Constitutional law and answerable only to the President, for purposes not only of passive information gathering, but to take aggressive means of injuring and eliminating specific political targets. Nixon ignores the Eisenhower and Scranton reports. The Eisenhower Commission was formed to look into the assassinations of both Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy, and the violations of rights involved. The Scranton Commission was set to look into campus unrest. They determined that the actions on the part of the government needlessly sacrificed citizen's rights to maintain order, and that campus demonstrations were a result of unaddressed national problems. Nixon repudiates the Scranton Commission report all told. He expands the Attorney General Clark's Interdepartmental Information Unit (IDIU) to cover campus dissidence. The Intelligence Evaluation Committee (IEC) is formed, with its ultimate purpose being the reviving and implementation of the Huston Plan, while soothing J. Edgar Hoover's feathers. U.S. military intelligence units, next to the FBI, become the most important components of the government's intelligence apparatus. They grossly overstep their boundaries, conducts surveillance, and assembles dossiers on individuals and organizations from every quarter of dissent and literally every organization of a liberal, radical or dissident leaning. Once again, the government violates the Constitution, since the military is only to be used to repel invasion, suppress insurrection and execute the laws of the land, according to Article I, section 8 of the U.S. Constitution. Military intelligence gathering becomes more intense than other agencies, due to the inherent bias and greater technology of the military. (Circa) The Secret Army Organization (SAO) is formed. As many other right wing extremist groups, this one's trademarks are violence and terror, vandalism, fire-bombings, shootings, assassinations, etc. Extreme right wing groups often follow these kind of tactics. The SAO is linked to the bombing of a porno movie theatre in San Diego in 1972. One of the group's principals is Howard Berry Godfrey, a San Diego fireman and an FBI informer. SAO targets are the same as the FBI's, and the two undoubtedly shared information. Congressman George Bush holds hearings using Eugenic ideas about Black people and their alleged inferiority. Consults heavily with close friend General William H. Draper, a longtime Eugenicist.

 

1970 — Hoover breaks off liaison with CIA when Agency refused to name FBI agent who had given them intelligence info. In May he terminated liaison with all other federal intelligence agencies. "Huston Plan" is put into effect. Calls for increased surveillance of "violence prone campus and student related groups" through illegal operational methods. Done because the "campus is the battle ground of the revolutionary protest movement." Colleges have been the single concentration area of American intelligence units, both federal and local. Coverage stepped up during the late '60's. Bureau's role goes back to on-campus recruitment efforts, where agents got to be known on campus, and to college administrators. This gave agents a way to gather information on organizations and individuals, without arousing suspicion, allowing agents to develop "confidential sources." In spite of heavy intelligence gathering on various campuses, FBI doesn't even detect bombing of a lab on a Wisconsin campus. Doesn't detect emergence of SDS's Weather Underground, and can't manage arrests of members. After a bomb assembly operation blows up in Greenwich Village, and a number of demonstrations around the country, Nixon tells the Congress the problems "Were the work of young criminals posturing as romantic revolutionaries." One of Nixon's advisers characterized the movement by telling the press: "It wouldn't make a lot of difference if the war and racism ended overnight. We're dealing with the criminal mind, with people who have snapped for some reason." A key Nixon aide added that "We are facing the most severe internal security threat this country has seen since the depression." The Internal Security Division (ISD) grand jury program convinces prosecutors to harass dissidents and their supporters by verbally abusing them during testimony in front of grand juries, often without benefit of counsel, often asking questions that might cause them to incriminate themselves. Most activists opt to suffer a contempt of court charge and are put in jail until they either talk or the grand jury term ends, or 18 months. ISD chief William Olson stated that "No inquiries are conducted for the purpose of supplying intelligence information to any other office of government." However, once information is in ISD's files, it was distributed to virtually every intelligence gathering organization in government. All of the ISD grand juries provided the "legal" forum to gather information about activists and organizations in parts of the country that were distant from where the actual grand jury sessions took place. Witnesses were harassed, jailed. None were under indictment nor actively suspected of crimes. HISC Chairman Richard Ichord launches an "investigation" into the funding of revolutionary groups by requesting 179 colleges and universities to supply the names, sponsorship and honoraria of "all guest speakers on the campus from Sept. 1968 to May of 1970." U.S. District Judge Gerhard Gesell bans publication of the list on the grounds it was a blacklist, intended "to inhibit speech on college campuses" and "it is without proper legislative purpose and infringes on the rights of the indiviudals named therein." Judge Gesell further determined it would be "illegal to publish the list at public expense." Regardless, the committee publishes the list claiming immunity from the court's interference with legislative function. The Senate version of HISC is the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS). It too tries to play the intelligence gathering game by broadening its own powers of "investigation" and blames communist influence for our domestic problems. (Circa) The National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC) is formed by Lyndon LaRouche, a former OSS agent. LaRouche is a former Socialist Worker's Party member, who eventually turned to the extreme right wing. In 1973 NCLC spun off the U.S.Labor Party as its political wing. Both organizations get their guidance from their prime enemy: The Rockefeller organizations. LaRouche sees Rockefeller as the harbinger of what has come to be called the "New World Order." Politics sometimes does make strange bedfellows. Richard Helms, CIA Director, is ordered by Nixon to stop Chilean Marxist Presidential candidate Salvador Allende from taking office. Nixon authorized $10 million dollars to get the job done. Nixon ordered Allendea's downfall because certain American businesses, including Pepsico, the maker of Pepsi Cola, and a company Nixon has been associated with for many years, did not want a Marxist regime where they have a plant. President Johnson's final budget includes $43 Million dollars for drug enforcement, $59 Million for research, rehabilitation and treatment.

 

1971 — Campaign against Heroin use in Vietnam fails. Robert L. duPont,Jr. named first head of National Institute on Drug Abuse. duPont begins, very quietly, to urge urine testing. Hoover tries to expand his "Legal attaches" overseas. Agents engaged in secuirty work involving American citizens or residents. Hoover wants a total of 22 foreign cities with bureaus, formalizing and enlarging duties to include general political intelligence (traditional State Dept.job) for transmission in code directly to the White House, bypassing State Dept. and CIA. Hoover lobbied Nixon for approval. Got it, telling subordinates (who were against the idea) that the White House insisted on it. Hoover may have got the idea when President Johnson asked for evidence of foreign involvement in anti-war movement. Congressman (later President) Gerald Ford, while on the Warren Commission panel that investigated President Kennedy's assasination, fed secret testimony and deliberations of panel to Hoover. Ex-agent Robert Wall reveals that use of informers induced the use of fake informers. Wall, in an interview, said he and other agents would go through a phone book, pick a name, file reports under that name, report "informer" wanted payment, then the agent would pocket the money. Accountability was limited, so agents could get away with it. GAO reports the FBI employed some 37,000 informers between 1940 and 1978, including 7,893 in 170 Racial and Extremist groups' surveillance (assume these figures are very conservative). Between 1966 and 1976 the Chicago Bureau office alone paid out $2.5 million to 5,145 informers during investigating or develop-ing files on 27.900 organizations and individuals. Investigating the Socialist Workers Party and its youth affiliate, with a combined membership of 2500 cost $1,683,000. This sum was paid to 301 informers who joined the two groups, and does not include pay for 1,000 others who snooped, but never joined. By 1976, FBI budgets $7,401,000.00 to pay political informers. In 1979, then Director William Webster refused to allow a congressional audit of Bureau's informers. "Media Papers" removed from resident FBI agency at Media, Pennsylvania. One of the thousand documents removed refers to "educators and administrators who are established sources." Others mention sources like a Swarthmore College Switchboard operator, a registrar at an Eastern Women's college, an administrative employee at the University of California Berkley campus, the Swarthmore campus Police chief and a file custodian at Swarthmore. Congress repeals emergency detention provisions of Internal Security Act of 1950. Wording indicates congress' intent to wipe out detention as well as incidental authority to keep lists of individuals who might be detained. As usual, Bureau works to get around the law. Bureau instituted "Administrative Index" (ADEX) which, with the blessing of Attorney General John Mitchell, continued the indexing process. Cointelpros stopped by Bureau, for fear of discovery of disruption programs with the release of the Media papers.2340 disruption programs instituted; 715 approved to cause disruption within an organization, or between two organizations. An ISD grand jury in Los Angeles indicts Dr. Daniel Ellslberg for his procurement and release of documents pertaining to the Vietnam war. The New York Times newspaper published these documents which came to be called the "Pentagon Papers." Nixon's White House tries to paint Ellsberg as a spy, working for foreign (communist) powers, claims Ellsberg delivered documents to the Russian embassy. The FBI, with great, continual surveillance on the embassy, could find no evidence that the documents had been delivered there. During the investigation from Los Angeles, plus the convening of a grand jury in Boston also looking into the case, associates of Ellsberg were subpoenaed; several were jailed for contempt for refusing to testify. Harvard faculty member Dr. Samuel Popkin, in addition to being harassed by the prosecution during questioning, was jailed on contempt charges for refusing to answer questions that would have revealed the confidential sources of his research. He was the first American scholar to go to jail for refusing to name his sources of his research. Nixon declares drugs "Public Enemy Number One." Veterans addicted to heroin begin returning from Vietnam.

 

1972 — Shafer commission report issued. Finds no reason that Cannabis should remain criminal. Urges decriminalization, falls just short of calling for relegalization. Finds no physical, mental, or moral problems with the smoking. President Nixon, who commissioned report, refuses to accept findings. Nixon calls drugs "America's public enemy #1." Congress passes $1 Billion dollar anti-drug bill. Little effect noted. By 1972 Communists were becoming an endangered species. Bureau (Hoover) needed new enemies. Started concentrating on "New Left," such as Women's Liberation Movement, Gay movement, Anti-War Movement (though they had been looking at anti war movement for awhile) and Hemp (at that time Marijuana) Movement. Hoover determined that Women's Movement was violence prone, and he especially wanted the Students for a Democratic Society and its faction, the Weather Underground. Bureau forms an association with the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis to frustrate an anti-war group demonstrating against Honeywell (the company was making cluster bombs [anti-personel bombs]) for use in Vietnam. Other agencies (CIA, IRS, Military Intelligence, Office of Naval Intelligence, National Security Agency, grand juries, other intelligence organizations) join forces to investigate virtually all anti-establish-ment organizations. Just before his death, Hoover stated that Bureau was not involved in campus activities, though the record proves otherwise. Lawrence Trackman, identified as "an American adventurer" by the Rome newspaper "Il Messaggero." They report Trackman was arrested in Manila, Phillipines because of his alleged involvement in an assassination plot against Ferdinand Marcos. He told interviewers that Kennedy was "The victim of a plot by 15 Cuban and American mercenaries enlisted for the Bay of Pigs invaison." The group could have been Interpen-IAB. James McCord, security chief for Nixon's Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP), claims the anti-war organization Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) was planning violent demonstrations against Nixon at the Republican National Convention in Miami. McCord, in testimony during the Watergate hearings in 1973, said the ISD reports showed this alleged violence would happen just before the Watergate break-in in May. However, ISD did not convene a grand jury until after the Watergaters had been caught and an urgent need by the Administration for a cover was at hand.Just prior to the Republican convention, the ISD grand jury subpoenaed 23 leaders of VVAW, forcing them to leave Miami, disrupting the demonstration. Six VVAW members were eventually indicted for conspiracy to disrupt the convention. Four VVAW members refused to testify, and were jailed for comtempt of court. The Court of Appeals overturned the contempt citations and remanded the case to District Court. District court jailed the four again for contempt; they stayed behind bars for a month, with no bail. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas finally set bail, expressing disgust that the grand jury system was being subverted for political purposes. Any planned demonstrations outside the convention involving VVAW was effectively stopped. The break in at the Watergate Office and apartment complex in Washington occurred on May 27th. Efforts against Daniel Ellsberg, VVAW, and other organizations had a "blow back" effect on the government. The government, in most cases, could not back up their charges with evidence. Using the grand jury system for political purposes, however, did set a very dangerous precedent against dissidents. One tool the government used was the "unindicted co-conspirator" charge. This caused a stigma to be attached to those people who, in most cases, were mere witnesses to activities. By labelling someone an unindicted co-conspirator, the victim is not even given a chance for legal defense. It also caused a secondary inducement to testify, which would remove the stigma. It also gave the impression to the public that the cases ran deeper than what was officially indicated. The grand jury is still being used as an intelligence-gathering tool against American citizens, even through 1998. Efforts to convince the Lakota Indian nation to sell uranium fall through. Between 1972 and 1975 there are 60 violent deaths of American Indian Movement members or supporters. AIM had been asked to protect the Lakota people at the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Leonard Peltier was one who came to help preserve his people's way of life.

 

1973 — Nixon declares "We have turned the corner on drug addiction in America." Nelson Rockefeller's tough anti-drug bill passes in New York. Little effect noted.ADEX declared by Bureau "strictly an administrative device" in an attempt to provide legitimacy. Bureau agents refer to "files," not "dossiers" because "dossiers" sounds ominous. Even though Bureau files are supposed to be confidential, they find their way to the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP). Files probably came in through James McCord, CREEP's security chief, a former FBI, CIA operative. One file, on a "Letterhead Memo" (LHM) didn't deal at all with CREEP, but with the organization "Vietnam Veterans Against the War." FBI Director Clarence Kelly urges legislation to reinstitute Cointelpros, saying they did more good than harm. Inititive denied. 10th anniversary of Kennedy's assassination. Demonstration outside of National Archives in Washington, demands evidence be released about assassination. Author of "Executive Action," Don Freed states Gerald Ford, member of the Warren Commission, should be arrested for including classified documents in his book "Portrait of the Assassin." Also states that when Dr. Cyril Wecht was given permission to see some previously witheld pathological evidence, he found that Kennedy's brain, preserved in formaldehyde, and allegedly turned over to the National Archives, was missing. Eugenio Martinez, after Watergate, tells Harper's magazine that the Watergaters had used the same pseudonyms they used during the Bay of Pigs. James McCord was using the name Edward J. Martin. Hunt was using the name Mr. White. Was this the Mr. Martin that was going to sell weapons to Cubans? In 1972 ex-political informant for the Los Angeles Police, Louis Tackwood, said he was approached by a Mr. Martin and a Mr. White and had been asked to incite a riot at the 1972 Republican Convention. How did Tackwood know the code names before the Watergate episode occured? CIA Director Helms, in testimony to Congress in connection with his appointment as ambassador to Iran, denied that the Agency had ever spied on American citizens. In response to whether he knew about the Nixon administration's urging that all intelligence agencies join together to investigate the anti-war movement, Helms stated "I don't recall if we were asked, but we were not involved because it seemed to me that was a clear violation of what our charter was." The evidence overwhelmingly indicates Helms was fully aware of what was going on, and, in fact,encouraged it. Therefore, he lied to Congress. H.R. Haldeman, during the attempted implementation of the Huston plan, said that Tom Huston was afraid of refusal of CIA help, but the CIA was "most cooperative and helpful." Huston said the only stumbling block was J. Edgar Hoover. Hoover probably didn't want to share the limelight with the CIA. Helms eventually admits "his arm was twisted" by Presidents Johnson and Nixon to commit domestic surveillance. The ramrod behind the Agency's involvement was none other than James Angleton, with his background in encouraging Nazi war criminal involvement in the CIA in the late 40's. Nixon's staff, upset by the counter demonstrations at Nixon rallies, puts out the false news story that foreign and communist money financed anti-Nixon efforts. The CIA is still unable to provide any proof, as none existed. Nixon later changes the story to mean "foreign support," a vague statement that, in reality, meant people in other nations did not want the Vietnam war either. Juan Peron briefly seizes power once again in Argentina. He dies in 1974. His return to power is believed to have been mostly financed by his late wife Evita's fortune of Nazi money. Thanks to the Peron's, the original Nazis, and now their direct descendants, are firmly entrenched in not only Argentina, but all of South America.

 

1974 — Rubin, Comitas study "Ganja in Jamaica" released. Finds no long term physical, mental, moral problems from Cannabis smoking. Budget for drug enforcement reaches $292 Million dollars. $462 Million earmarked for demand reduction and treatment. "Coup D'etat" co-author Michael Canfield, looking into the identity of three tramps near the scene of Kennedy's murder, is shown photographs; One is definitely Frank Sturgis, one is Howard Hunt, the other is Bernard Barker, all of Watergate infame. Activist Dick Gregory is given photographs, immediately releases information in a press conference, later testifies before Rockefeller CIA activities panel. Generally, media ignores confirmed photographic evidence (Columnist Jack Anderson is the only one who picks up story). After an expose of CIA domestic operations, Angleton, whose cover was now blown, tried the excuse of claiming he was victim of the Soviet KGB efforts to descredit American intelligence organizations. SISS publishes 400 page report claiming Marijuana traffic constitutes an unprecedented threat to nation's security by New Left groups trying to ruin this country's morals. The report, as most are, is full of falsehoods and outright lies about Cannabis. There is no evidence that any foreign government or "communism" has anything to do with Marijuana or drug trafficking.

 

1975 — Rockefeller's now hold largest block of stock in Atlantic Richfield (ARCO) and were believed to be in control of Texaco as well. Rockefellers also thought to control Royal Dutch Shell. All these companies were, in policy, committed to the New World Order. FBI, in spite of bureau attempts to lessen critisism, targets 1100 organizations they suspect of being communist-infiltrated. In testimony to Church commit-tee, Charles Brennan, chief of Internal Security Section of FBI'S Domestic Intelligence Division tried to justify Bureau's surveillance of Vietnam war opponents because they might be subversive in the future. Church committee demands, receives files from Bureau dealing with "subversives" but Bureau doesn't even review its secret field files. Files in New York office subsequently reveal its burglary program. Obtained pursuant to a court-ordered search. About this time, Howard Hunt, after Watergate, writes several books, one of which is blatantly anti-Kennedy. John Dean finds several bogus telegrams in Hunt's safe accusing Kennedy of having South Vietnamese Premier Ngo Dinh Diem killed. Hunt had shown General Charles Conein copies of the telegrams (Conein had been an adviser in Vietnam under Kennedy). Conein begins blaming Kennedy for Diem's assassination. Soon after, Conein is hired by Drug Enforcement Administration. Gets in touch with a private company that produces sophisticated assassination weapons. On June 26, two FBI agents drive into an AIM encampment, claiming to be trailing Indian Jimmy Eagle for reportedly stealing a pair of used cowboy boots. A firefight developed, killing the two agents and one Indian. No investigation into the killing of Joe Stuntz Killsright, the Indian. The FBI chooses four of 20 possible suspects for prosecution: Dino Butler, Bob Robideau, Jimmy Eagle, and Leonard Peltier. Robideau and Butler were taken into custody, the whereabouts of Eagle and Peltier unknown. Robideau and Butler were tried and acquitted. The FBI dropped charges against Eagle and went after Peltier, a possible future AIM leader. Prior to Robideau and Butler's trial, Peltier had gone to Canada. The government presented affadavits that they finally admitted in 1985 were falsified and coerced against Peltier to gain his extradition. He is removed back to this country. FBI memo, "American Indian Movement Investigative Techniques" recommends a "Full investigation of local AIM chapters, its leaders and members." The memo adds: " ... Any full investigation involves a degree of privacy invasion and that of a person' right to free expression. " After exposure of some undercover agents, an FBI document states: "As a result of certain disclosures regarding informants, AIM leaders have dispersed, have become extremely security conscious and literally suspect everyone." FBI documents also reveal that friendly media helped in suppressing groups like AIM and black activist organizations. The help came in the form of manipulation of information to the media as a whole and feeding slanted stories to cooperative media outlets. In 1978 The National Lawyers Guild would publish a list of media who helped with Cointelpro: The Hearst Papers, the Associated Press, New York Daily News, Chicago Tribune, Milwaukee Journal, Los Angeles Examiner, U.S. News & World Report, and the Arizona Daily Star, among others. A counterinsurgency plan code named "Garden Plot" is exposed in New Times Magazine. State, local police were trained by the military in the event of a domestic insurgency. The martial law network included the FBI, all branches of the military, the Federal Marshalls Service, Highway Patrols, SWAT teams and other riot police. The action at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the part of AIM, was the first opportunity for actual practice for the network.

 

1976 — F.D.A. powers expanded to control all "medical devices." President Gerald Ford signs executive order forbidding government recognition of any study that finds benefits from Cannabis. Allows only pharaceutical companies to do research into Cannabis. Congressman Larry P. McDonald writes introduction to book "The Rockefeller File" where he warns America that Rockefeller's aim is one world government, (New World Order) where the Rockefeller family, for at least 50 years, has been structuring a plan to gain political control of first, America, then the world. McDonald is convinced a generations-old plan, designed to slowly implement change and "evil in intent" has been going on. NCLC renounces its leftism, becomes an authoritarian conservative organization, ostensibly uses its intelligence gathering skills against "terrorists." They try to label the environmental movement as terrorist in nature. FBI files show that NCLC has collaborated with various government agencies, and has instigated national security investigations against its political enemies such as Jewish, Black, Native American and environmental groups. Jimmy Carter is elected President. CIA covert actions under Carter amount to distribution of pro-American democracy books throughout the Soviet Union. Carter's administration starts shoring up relations with friendly countries such as Britain and Saudi Arabia. Carter's CIA was involved with a paramilitary support operation in Marxist South Yemen, though the biggest intelligence action came with CIA assistance of the Afgani rebels after the Soviet Union invaded Afganistan. For the first time, American made weapons were being used against Soviet troops. The "Dirty War" in Argentina begins. The "War Without Borders" against the political left extended beyond Argentina. Peronist students, laborists and other supporters are the first targets. The "Butcher of Lyon," Klaus Barbie, was among those helping the Neo-Nazis in their anti-leftist crusade.

 

1977 — A Department of Justice investigative report, just released this year, would not recommend prosecution of individuals involved in mail-opening programs instituted by Nixon. They use the grounds that the program may have been justified by the President's national security power. CIA counterintelligence chief James Angleton defends the program saying that it produced valuable information. He rejected as "Inconceivable" that the CIA should be required to conform to law. A 400 page report is prepared and leaked to the media by the Bureau that indicates the Weather Underground had foreign "support." The report was released as a defense to the Kearney Commission indictments over wiretapping and mail covering of dissidents. The report maintained that no crimes were committed by government intelligence agents because the Weathermen were in fact foreign agents, subject to inherent executive power. The Bureau was made to adhere to the standards reached in the Keith case of 1975, backed up by the decision in Zwiborn v. Mitchell that the mere influence or support of a foreign power did not deprive a domestic organization of constitutional rights that require warrants for tapping. (Circa) Nuclear Regulatory Commission forms the Intelligence Assessment Team (IAT) to ostensibly monitor possible thefts of nuclear materials and information. However, as usual in the intelligence community, they end up monitoring anti-nuclear, environmental, and other groups with "left" leanings. Immediately, IAT liasons with other intelligence gathering organizations. Leonard Peltier is found guilty of murdering two FBI agents at the Pine Ridge Reservation in 1975. The FBI in the 90's finally admit they really don't know who killed the agents.

 

1978 — (Circa) DDU becomes CIA within the CIA. Dulles, Wisner, Angleton sabotaged Agency's filing system to protect State dept. Nazis in 1950's. This year, CIA reports to Congress that "No Nazis were ever smuggled into this country under the "100 persons" program. President Carter issues an executive order limiting intelligence agencies. However, electronic surveillance is still allowed if the government suspects a citizen of being an agent of a foreign power. Order reinforces a Nixon Administration doctrine of executive authority to bypass the Constitutional protections of the fourth amendment. A "briefing paper" released to Congress dealing with Terrorism claims that laws and regulations against counterintelligence is hampering law enforcement ability to deal with terrorists. Chicago Police Superintendent James E. O'Grady, in congressional testimony, claims the lawsuit against Chicago's "Red Squad" to halt police spying of lawful, peaceful activity renders the Chicago Police virtually helpless to stop terrorist activities there. This argument ignores first amendment rights of protest The Justice Department findings for 1977 indicate out of 1318 bombings in America, only 4 could be considered subversive. The Task Force on Disorder and Terrorism releases findings that between 1965 and 1976 incidents involving political violence are substantially caused by right wing and racist groups, not "communist" or "new left" organizations. Most U.S. based terrorist groups are right wing, supporting various right wing governments and overseas terrorist operations. As government "cracks down" on intelligence agencies through tighter congressional oversight and new laws, local and state intelligence agencies (that usually work through police departments) have taken over. For instance, a Los Angeles Police Department team made still photographs and videotapes of witnesses opposing a proposed nuclear power plant. The police claimed they were taking pictures as part of a police training excercise, but recanted that later These groups tend to still investigate "new left" targets as they always have, but now the just simply claim the targets are "terrorists." Ayatollah Khomeni takes power in Iran, ousting U.S. backed dictator Shah Palavi, and taking Americans who had been living in Iran as hostages. Carter orders a rescue attempt. Several military helicopters used in the attempt mysteriously fail, causing the mission to fail. The bungled attempt becomes the symbol of a failed presidency.

 

1980 — Costa Rica studies released on Cannabis. No distinguishable harm found from use of Cannabis. First Emit Cannabinoid test developed. With aggressive marketing to industry, government, military, Emit is the fastest growing of the tests, though accuracy is next to nothing. Ronald Reagan is elected President and installs William Casey as CIA Director. Reagan has been directly linked to emigre groups run by Nazis. Casey was a protege of William "Wild Bill" Donovan while at the OSS during WWII. Casey was responsible for setting up a spy ring in Nazi Germany six months before the end of the war. CASEY HEADED A FASCIST FRONT GROUP, "THE INTERNATIONAL RESCUE COMMITTEE" THAT HELPED NAZI FUGITIVES WITH IMMIGRATION PROBLEMS. Reagan's staff published a calender celebrating April 10th as "Croatian Independence Day" and permitted known Nazis to work on his campaign. Casey vows to revamp the CIA under Reagan. The CIA had the wind taken out of its sails during the Carter years as a result of Congressional investigations. Casey has CIA legal staff start drawing up plans to eliminate Justice Department oversight of the agency. Under Casey's plan, the ban on domestic surveillance of American Citizens would be lifted. First Lady Nancy Reagan begins her "Just Say No" to drugs campaign. Klaus Barbie helps to organize a brutal coup d'etat against the democratically elected government in Bolivia. Bolivian drug lords and an international coaltion of neo-fascists bankroll the putsch. Support was given by the World Anti-Communist League, which was led by WWII war criminal Ryoichi Sasakawa of Japan and the Rev. Sun Myung Moon. Barbie started a secret lodge called "Thule," where he lectured his followers. During the 80's, the Argentine government would extend its Nazism to Central America and would become staunch allies of America's CIA, particularly under Reagan. The Argentines would organize paramilitary forces in several countries, including the Nicaraguan Contras and Honduran "Death Squads."

 

1981 — U.S. Military begins forced urine testing of military troops. Drug control now costs $1.5 Billion dollars ... .more precisely, $1,531,000

 

1983 — Korean airlines 007 flight shot down when it "accidentally" flies over Soviet territory. Plane contains Congressman Larry McDonald, who had been investigating Rockefeller family. The attempt on Reagan's life exposes weaknesses in planning for emergencies. Secretary of State Alexander Haig,in violation of the Constitution, claims he is in control of the government, then backs down. The FBI immediately takes possession of Reagan's clothes and briefcase as "evidence." Included in the possessions is Reagan's secret personal code card that provides the coded number that can be used to authenticate a nuclear weapons strike. The incident points out the failure of the "fail safe" management of nuclear weapons. Casey names Dr. Constatin Menges as National Intelligence Officer for Latin America. Menges had worked for Frank Carlucci, the former deputy CIA Director under Carter, and former deputy at the department of Health, Education and Welfare. Carlucci has a background in intelligence. Why are people with Intelligence backgrounds serving in HEW, the agency that sets national education policy? Casey, Reagan, Donovan, the Dulles brothers, and that ilk go back a long way. Casey, along with most of the rest of the Reagan administration grows concerned about Central America. Claims that Cuba, the right wing's old nemesis, was exporting communism to El Salvador through Nicaragua. Casey further claimed that CIA intelligence indicated that it was a textbook case of communist global conspiracy, citing, among other evidence, that American-made M-16 rifles whose serial numbers matched those weapons missing from the Vietnam war, being found in Sandinista possession. Intelligence further indicated that Cuba had infiltrated the Sandinista government, permitting weapons and supply shipments a base on the way to El Salvador. Philosophically, the Reagan government wanted no communist government that close to the U.S. Diplomatic approaches were made by threatening to withhold financial aid and asking that the Nicaraguan government not help the El Salvadoran rebels. The Sandinistas refused to go along with American demands. Consensus, which Reagan preferred among his staff, was lacking on Central Ameri-ca. Secretary of State Haig wanted an open war. Defense Secretary Weinburger wanted no part of another jungle war like Vietnam. Chief of Staff Baker and others wanted Reagan to stick to his domestic policy and not worry about the internal affairs of Central American nations. Casey allies the CIA with the right-wing Argentine government whose intelligence agency was already involved with Nicaragua. Montoneros guerillas opposed to the Argentine government were working out of Nicaragua. Argentina was training anti-Sandinista rebels in Honduras, just to the north of Nicaragua. Casey prefered this "piggyback" style of espionage, riding on the coattails of another nation such as the actions in Chad. Casey succeeded in obtaining $19 Million dollars to fund the Argentine efforts and to create a 500 man insurrection force to be used against the Sandinistas. The Reagan administration approves. Reagan signs a top secret order authorizing the expenditure. The decision was made to keep the Nicaraguan operation from the American people for fear of lack of acceptance. Funds, therefore, could not be obtained through Congress without public debate, but both House and Senate Intelligence committees had to be notified of a major covert operation, as per law. Questions were raised about the illegality and morality of the operation, but in the end, Casey won out. With Presidential approval. General Richard Secord sells weapons to the Contras. Later, he brokers the arms deal with Iran's Ayatollah Khomeni. Private money for the Contras is being raised. Secord and Albert Hakim control secret Swiss bank accounts that hold the Contra money. Beer magnate Adolph Coors contributes $85 Thousand, for example. Oliver North gave Coors the account number and name of the Swiss account for the deposit. Secord purchased $3.7 million dollars worth of missiles from the CIA and sold them to Iran for $10 million. Most of the money, though, never made it to the Contras.The Enterprise sold weapons to the Contras at a huge mark up. The Contras bought these weapons and used them mainly against civilian targets in Nicaragua ... old men, women and children, to break the spirit of the Sandinistas.

 

1982 — (Circa) Mena, Arkansas was set up as a secret base for the training of Contra (Nicaraguan) rebels, with the full cooperation and approval of then Governor Bill Clinton. The story of the Mena connection broke when notorious smuggler Barry Seal told of the servicing and unloading of his C123 cargo plane at Mena.

 

1984 — Seal unloads a shipment of Cocaine in Nicaragua. He had picked up the load in Columbia and was ordered by the DEA to stop in Nicaragua. Seal had been arrested on drug charges in 1982, and beat the arrest by working with DEA in a sting operation against the Medellin Cartel. The CIA had fitted Seal's plane with hidden cameras for the next trip for Cocaine. He therefore recorded secret tape of Cocaine being smuggled, which the Reagan Administration used to try and scare Congress into appropriating money for the Contras. DEA became upset that the CIA had co-opted its sting operation in favor of providing pro-Contra propaganda. Seal's cover was blown, and he was dropped from favor by both the CIA and DEA. Seal was sent to prison for his drug conviction, but was shortly released on probation. Seal was subsequently killed by "unknown gunmen." The CIA kept Seal's plane, "The Fat Lady" and pressed it into service, still running guns and drugs between Central and South America and the U.S., much of it coming in through Mena, Arkansas. Pilot Eugene Hasenfus survived the "Fat Lady" being shot down by Sandinistas in Nicaragua, and promptly claimed the protection of President Ronald Reagan. Mena continued to be one of the major staging grounds for the Contra training effort. Arkansas businessmen were coopted to produce untraceable pirate M-16 rifles for the Contras. Author Terry Reed says that Bill Clinton, as governor, laundered Contra money to hide the pirate rifle production and the fact that he used profits for the Arkansas political patronage system. Reed claims some $40 million dollars per month in CIA payoffs were channeled into Clinton's governors administration through wealthy Clinton supporters such as Little Rock investment banker Dan Lasater. Congress passes strengthened asset forfeiture laws

 

1985 — Milton, Wisconsin high school students forced to submit to weekly urine tests. Baseball commissioner Peter Uberroth orders all personel, except union players, submit to urine tests. By 1990, even ball players are forced to be tested. American industry, labor unions are encouraged by government to begin wholesale drug testing. Many comply. Author Reed says much of the payoff money dealing with the Iran Contra affair was channeled through the Arkansas Development Finance Authority, (ADFA), which then-Governor Clinton used for industrial development in Arkansas.

 

1986 — Omrcanin now lives in Washington, D.C. where he publishes pro-Ustashian tracts. He confirms Simcic and Cecelja's views. Claims Montini (Pope Paul VI) was fully aware of Ratlines. A report issued in a Lebanese magazine indicates the American government had traded weapons valued at about $3.7 million dollars to Iran's Ayatollah Khomeni for $10 million. Ten days later,President Reagan denied the report in a televised press conference. Nine days later, however, several laws were broken by Reagan and his staff. Admiral John Poindexter claims responsibility, says he left "deniability" to Reagan. Reagan, though, did did say on several occaisons that he wanted to help the Contras unilaterally ... that is, without Congressional approval. In several speeches, Reagan makes it clear he is in solidarity with the Contras. Because of CIA bombing of harbors,oil tankers and other targets, the operation is exposed. Congress stopped funding the Contras. Lt. Col. Oliver North was instrumental in obtaining a million dollars a month for the Contras from Saudi Arabia. Millions of dollars were also gathered from other allies. Former General John Singlaub, a known Nazi sympathizer (author's words) and head of the International Anti-Communist League, a known fascist organization, also raised money for the Contras. It is revealed that a group called "The Enterprise" has been formed by Albert Hakim, a presidential adviser and an Iranian by birth that supported the Shah's regime. The Enterprises purpose is to manage the Contra funds. The Enterprise consists of Hakim, General Richard Secord, Admiral John Poindexter, and North, possibly others. Secord ran the CIA secret war in Laos in the 1960's and was a major Pentagon figure in arms sales overseas, especially to the deposed Shah of Iran. According to author Terry Reed, duffel bags full of money were dropped on Seth "Skeeter" Ward's ranch at night, from airplanes. The CIA's handler for the operation was future president Bush's Attorney General, William Barr. Barr denies the story, but does admit having worked with the CIA. CIA figures meet with Governor Clinton to advise him the Mena operation was going to be moved to Mexico and the Arkansas money line would be cut off. Clinton protested that he had taken risks to accomodate the operation. Barr reportedly said: "This has turned into a feeding frenzy by your good ol' boy sharks, and you've got a hand in it too, Mr. Clinton ... our deal with you was to launder our money through your bond business ... 10% of the profits, not 10% of the gross. No one agreed for you to start loaning out our money to your friends through your ADFA ... we didn't count on Arkansas becoming more difficult to deal with than most banana republics."

 

1987 — Nearly half of all major American industry is now forcibly urine testing employees.

 

1988 — The British All Party Parliamentary Committee determines the Galician SS had not even been minimally screened in 1947, for normal immigration into Britain, which allowed many war criminals to escape prosecution. U.S. Senate adds $2.6 Billion to federal anti-drug efforts. Little effect noted. George Bush had to know about Croatian terrorists, since they hijacked an airplane on his watch as CIA director. Bush and his staff published a calender celebrating April 10 as "Croatian Independence Day." Bush also permitted known Fascists to work on his "Ethnic Outreach" program. Bush starts his version of the "War on Drugs" with a televised speech from his office where he holds up a bag of alleged Crack he claims was purchased a block from the White House. It was actually an arranged sale through DEA that took place elsewhere in Washington. Drug Free Workplace Act passes Congress, urges all private employers to drug test employees, in violation of their individual rights. Many insurance companies demand their customers drug test under the guise of accident prevention. Privately owned prisons are now common in most states,with varying standards of health and cleanliness. Problems with prison and jail overcrowding become reality as more and more drug users are jailed. Violent criminals are often released early so as to accomodate drug prisoners. Violent crime escalates as police resources are diverted to apprehend drug criminals. Governor Clinton issues "Arkansas Travellers Certificates," kind of "Key-to-the-City" type of awards, usually given to political friends, to Contra commander Adolfo Calero and Contragate figure and known Nazi, General John Singlaub. According to William Duncan, a former IRS investigator, $250 thousand dollars was laundered through local banks in Mena, Arkansas by Barry Seal's network to pay for upkeep on planes involved in the Contra operation. Duncan told Terry Reed: "I can assure you there was a cover-up." Duncan resigned from the IRS after clashing with his superiors over the Mena case. Duncan told "High Times" magazine he quit IRS after attorneys at the agency's Disclosure Litigation Branch pressured him to gloss over his testimony of the Mena affair. Duncan further alleged that he was told to say that he had no information about the allegation. Duncan finally quit IRS in 1989 over testimony about IRS corruption. Arkansas representative Bill Alexander pressured the government's General Accounting Office (GAO) to look into the Mena affair. Within four months, the investigation was shut down because of pressure from the National Security Council. Meanwhile, Polk County, Arkansas prosecutor Charles Black told the "CBS Evening News" that he met with Governor Clinton about the Mena affair. Clinton reportedly told him he would put a man on the case, but Black says he had never heard from Clinton about it. Bill Duncan says then U.S. Attorney for Arkansas, J. Michael Fitzhugh flatly refused to present money laundering evidence to the federal grand jury investigating the Mena affair. Duncan says Fitzhugh barred him from testifying. Of course, no indictments were ever handed down. Congress recreates the office "Drug Czar" and requires annual "National Drug Control Strategies" be presented, complete with short term and long term goals. The Marijuana Movement, now encompassing the industrial and medical benefits of the plant, reassembles in response to stepped-up prosecution.

 

1989 — Dr. John P. Morgan finds drug testing "... far from reliable ... testing companies are held to no standards but their own." Most testers are poorly trained, uncertified. Drug budget reaches $6.7 Billion dollars. By late in the year, drugs reach the top of public opinion polls. President Bush institutes his first drug control strategy, which emphasizes law enforcement. FY 1989 budget calls for spending $6.6 Billion dollars.

 

1990 — Lord Shawcross led fight in House of Lords to stop belated prosecution of war criminals. Effort fails. Drug budget for this year is $9.7 Billion dollars ... and rising every year.

 

1991 — NIDA reports drug testing more for surveilance than safety. Drug Budget: $10.9 Billion dollars.

 

1992 — Bill Clinton elected President. Steps up "War on Drugs." Drug budget: $11.9 Billion dollars.

 

1993 Dr. Joycelyn Elders, U.S. Surgeon General, calls for discussion on relegalizing drugs. President Clinton quickly reins her in. Elders son is arrested and charged with possession of Cocaine. Drug budget for FY 1993: $12.1 Billion dollars.

 

1994 — World Anti-Communist League (WACL), has taken over Intermarium, ABN activities. Same organization suspected by Congress of running guns for the Iran Contra affair. Had been run by retired U.S. General John Singlaub. Some of WACL's leaders were the same Nazis recruited by Kim Philby. Heads of Western Intelligence may be afraid to open Cold War files for this reason. Secretary General of Interpol, Raymond Kendall, lends his voice to the growing list of significant persons opposing the "war on drugs," as unwinnable and too costly, proposes what he terms depenalization" of drugs. Supreme Court invalidates controlled substances excise taxes as being in violation of double jeopardy points in Constitution. Estimates are that Cannabis is America is a $24 billion dollar a year crop, while still illegal. Estimates of the nation's largest legal crop, corn, are $16 billion. Police departments across the country run ads, otherwise encourage citizens to turn in drug users, with an emphasis on Cannabis. There are an Estimated 340,000 people in jail or prison for Cannabis related crimes, at a cost of $25,000 to $27,000 dollars per prisoner per year. Greatest effort in the nation's history to ban firearms from citizen possession. Attempt at passing yet another Omnibus Crime Bill fails over the proposed ban on 19 types of "assault" rifles. Would provide money for 100 thousand more police officers, and build still more prisons. At least one sixth of nation's prison population are behind bars for Cannabis "crimes," and you are more likely to draw more prison time for involvement with Cannabis than for killing someone. Widespread police use of road blocks looking for drugs begins. Police use intimidation to coerce driver's into consenting to vehicle searches. Police begin to use "Profiling," a method of stopping people who fit a certain description as a method of finding drugs. Drug budget up to $12,184,400,000

 

1995 — April 19-Federal Building in Oklahoma City bombed. Building contained a day care center. Children are among the victims. As usual, not much information from gov't. A lot of allegations on the Internet about who was responsible. Internet was used to transfer information between right wing militia groups linked to bombing. Congress, because of this, and certain newsgroups dealing with sex, introduces bill to restrict (censor) internet traffic. Anti-terrorism act introduced to Congress. Calls for Federal Emergency Manage-ment Agency (FEMA) to identify "terrorist" groups, suspend civil rights and arrest. Definition of "terrorist" group can be interpreted to include those organizations supporting anti-government positions on drugs, homosexuality, other alternative life styles. Has backing of President Clinton, Attorney General Reno, FBI Director Freeh, and law enforcement community. Militia groups, mainly right wing, become prevalent. They are now touting issues the left wing has sponsored for sometime like reduced government, repeal of income taxes, and restoration of the Bill of Rights. Still pushes racism, anti-semitism, fundamentalist Christianity. Drug budget: $13.2 Billion dollars.

 

1996 — Clinton wins a second term as President. He names retired Army General Barry McCaffrey, former commander of the Southern Command in Panama as his new drug Czar. California passes Proposition 215 which permits Californians to possess and grow Marijuana under a doctor's order. Arizona passes Proposition 200 which allows a doctor to prescribe a variety of currently illegal drugs. California Attorney General Dan Lungren tries every stalling tactic possible until the U.S. Justice Department can intervene and arrest people on Federal charges. Lungren runs for Governor, loses. New California Attorney General Lockyer favors the legislation. Some California citizens, with open-minded local governments do get needed medicine. Arizona's legislature overturns the referendum. Arizonans go back to the ballot box in 1997 and vote it back in. A routine flight from New York to Paris , France, TWA 800 ends in the crash of the plane in the Atlantic Ocean. Around 30 eyewitnesses claim to have seen a missile-like object rise from the ground. Independent research indicates explosive residue on some of the seats. FBI, NTSB, news media claim it was a fuel leak that caused an explosion.Evidence of a cover up exists. FY 96 Drug budget: $13.4 Billion dollars.

 

1997 — Nearly 642 thousand arrests are made in 1996 for Marijuana. 545 thousand were for simple possession. The Clinton Administration is responsible for about 2.1 million Marijuana arrests. One person was arrested every 49 seconds on a Marijuana charge.The U.S. Supreme Court in April ruled a Georgia law requiring candidates for public office be required to take a urine test for drugs. According to the court, the law failed to demonstrate a "Special need" substantial enough to override 4th Amendment provisions. Canadian authorities rule that bona fide Medical Marijuana users are exempt from criminal prosecution. Clinton announces doctors who prescribe or recommend Marijuana under voter-approved provisions in California and Arizona will be prosecuted and lose their ability to write prescriptions. The DEA demands the names of Arizonans who purchase Marijuana cultivation books. Federal agents seize 331 Marijuana plants and associated growing equipment in a raid on the Flower Therapy Marijuana Buyers Club in San Francisco. An Australian study shows the health of long term Marijuana users is virtually no different than that of the general population. "We don't see evidence of high psychological disturbance among long term users" according to study chief investigator David Reilly. "The results are unremarkable; the exceptional thing is that the respondents are unexceptional." In May, Rep. Barney Frank introduces a Medical Marijuana Bill in the House. Bill is virtually ignored. The New England Journal of Medicine calls the U.S. government's opposition to Medical Marijuana "Misguided, heavy-handed and inhumane." They call the Clinton administration's position "Hypocritical," and calls on the government to change Marijuana from Schedule 1 to Schedule 2.A study is released by the U.C.L.A. School of Medicine showing that no long term lung damage is evident in Marijuana smokers.The study is an 8-year long investigation into the study conducted by Dr. Donald Tashkin. "Neither the continuing nor the intermittent Marijuana smokers exhibited any significantly different rates of decline in (lung function) as compared to those who never smoked Marijuana.The conclusion of a comprehensive, long-term study by Kaiser Permanente shows no substantial link between regular Marijuana smoking and death.It does conclude that Marijuana Prohibition causes much greater harm. Researchers found no increase in deaths among the more than 14 thousand patients who reported smoking Marijuana as compared to those who had never used Marijuana. The 1997 Drug budget climbs to $15.03 Billion dollars.

 

1998 — Marijuana becomes the nation's fourth largest crop, in spite of being illegal. The industry by now rakes in $10 billion dollars annually. Nearly 700 hundred thousand arrests for Marijuana were reported in 1996. 87% of those were arrested on simple possession charges ... the remaining 13% on sales or cultivation charges. Under the Clinton administration, nearly 2.8 million Marijuana arrests have been made. Yet another study showing very little risk of having an automobile accident after having smoked Marijuana. This one is from Australia. Clinton's drug czar, General Barry McAfferey, lies about the impact tolerance of Marijuana in the Netherlands has had on crime in that country.McAfferey claims the Dutch murder rate is twice that of America's. In fact, the Netherland's murder rate is 440% lower than the U.S. McCafferey further claimed Dutch children are three times more likely to try Marijuana than American kids. The fact is that that 21% of Dutch high school kids tried Marijuana as opposed to 45% of Americans during the same time period. It's not the first time McCafferey has been caught in public lies about the War. The magazine New Scientist exposed a conspiracy from the World Heatth Organization with the U.S. government to not publish a study favorable to Marijuana. An unnamed National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and someone from the UN International Drug Control Programme (sic) "warned the WHO that it would play into the hands of groups campaigning to legalise (sic) Marijuana." The WHO report found that Marijuana fared well in 5 of 7 long-term health comparisons. Further, the WHO report states there is no threat of long term lung damage such as blocked airways or emphysema, nor was it seriously addictive nor does it lead to other drug use. Clinton signs into law a bill that would take student financial aid away from those caught with drugs. One time offenders are denied money for college for one year; two time offenders for two years. Students are allowed eligibility in the participate in a drug rehabilitation program and pass two random drug tests.A coalition of Republican representatives on the House Judiciary Committee approves a "Sense of the House of Representatives" resolution stating "Marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug and should not be legalized for medical use." A study indicates that workplace drug testing has a negative impact on worker productivity. The study by the Le Moyne College Institute of Industrial Relations found that pre-employment and random testing procedures reduced productivity by 20%. By this year, however approximately 82% of all American companies have some sort of drug testing protocol. Urine tests are still highly innaccurate. All of the tests can be defeated. Congress approves 23 million dollars to develop a fungus that destroys Marijuana plants. The fungus, however, is found to have a general negative impact on the environment. Congress pushes the program anyway. ALASKA, WASHINGTON STATE, OREGON AND NEVADA PASS MEDICAL MARIJUANA LEGAL REFORMS! The residents of Washington D.C. also pass a voter initiative, however because of a last-minute bill introduced by Rep. Bob Barr (R-Ga), no money could be spent to count the ballots! Congress, for the first time in American history, and with impunity, negated the results of an American election before the results were even known! A federal judge ordered the ballot box sealed until the court could hear the case. It would take months before it was discovered that D.C. had passed the initiative by 62%. Nevertheless, Congress, which has financial control over the D.C. board of Managers, passed legislation to prevent the initiative from being put into law! As usual, nothing is done. Several public opinion polls indicate 2/3 of the American public favor relegalizing for medicine. Most Medical Associations favor an end to Marijuana prohibition as well. A bill is introduced into the Mississippi legislature by Rep. Bobby Moak (R-Lincoln County) authorizes "The removal of a body part in lieu of other sentences imposed by the court for violations of the Controlled Substances law." Law fortunately does not pass. The Center for Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University releases a study stating that Marijuana alone does not cause criminal activity. The three year study showed less than one percent of persons who committed crimes were under the influence of only Marijuana when they committed a violent crime. Further, the study shows only between one and four percent of violent criminals were under the influence of Crack Cocaine or Heroin during the commission of crime. U.S. House of Representatives Speaker Newt Gingrich called for "Greatly increased" activity on the part of government in the War on Drugs. He urges Drug Czar Barry McAfferey to map "A World War II style battle plan" to end drug use in America. America spends on average of $30 billion dollars a year ... a third of that is used to combat Marijuana. Gingrich authored a bill calling for the death penalty for anyone caught importing more than 100 dosage units of an illegal substance. That could include anyone carrying more than 50 grams of Marijuana over the border.A rather dramatic study out of Italy shows Marijuana-like chemicals are produced naturally by the human body to combat pain. Researchers at the University of Naples found Anadamides, chemicals similar in structure to chemicals contained in Marijuana, causes the body to ease the symptoms of pain. Thus, Marijuana is an analgesic, according to Dr. John Morgan, a long time Marijuana researcher. The federal drug budget for this year is $15.9 Billion.

 

1999 — A U.S. Air Force directive in February forbids all personnel from using Hemp seed oil products, claiming that military drug tests can not distinguish between legal Hemp products and Mairjuana. It is revealed that California Against Marijuana Planting employees testified to the environmental and human damage caused by the government's aerial eradication programs. "Every officer that's been in a helicopter involved in the CAMP program ... would say "Yes, we have flwn under 500 feet (In violation of legally mandated guidelines.) ... We got as close as we could to treetops to hover; we have looked into people's windows, " according to a former deputy sheriff and CAMP officer Gary Holder. The hearings are part of a class action suit against the government's eradication program. The American Farm Bureau Federation withdrew language from previous statements opposing research and domestic cultivation of industrial Hemp. The Farm Bureau says it dropped its opposition because farmers are in need of alternative crops. Estimated American farmer profits from Hemp go as high as $141 per acre. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released its findings that Marijuana holds medical value and has a low potential for abuse. IOM supports an administrative petition that seeks to remove Marijuana's classification as a Schedule 1 drug. The study, commissioned by the Clinton Administration, also shows no evidence that Marijuana is a "Gateway" substance, leading to stronger drugs. "Except for the harms associated with smoking, the adverse effects of marijuana use are within the range of effects tolerated for other medications." Clinton, as Nixon before him in dealing with the Shaffer Commission in 1972, ignores the report. A study published in the February 4, 1999 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine shows no link between miscarriages and Marijuana use. Further, Marijuana shows "No reliable impact on birth size, length of gestation or the occurrence of physical abnormalities," according to Dr. John Morgan, of NORML. This year's drug war budget will cost taxpayers $17,886,200,000. That's nearly $2 Billion dollars more than President Clinton had requested. In December, a conference of the World Trade Organization is held in Seattle. A massive protest of that body that seeks to control the commerce of the entire world ends in bloodshed and some property damage. Police are likely causes of the trouble. Crowd is fired on with rubber bullets and "Flash Bang" grenades, in spite of police denials of such weapons. Several hundred arrests are made. Evidence that police launched canisters of nerve gas against the crowds exists. Police again deny that they used this weapon. Many of the delegates refuse to agree on trade regulations. The Echelon spy satellite network is finally confirmed by some of America's allies. The system was first put into place shortly after WWII and upgraded several times since. The system is designed to spy on the citizens of several countries, including the United States. NATO begins bombing Yugoslavia, with major backing by the U.S. and U.K. It's the first time NATO has initiated war against a sovereign nation. U.S. and NATO claim massive "Ethnic Cleansing" against Serbs. Bombing lays waste to Yugoslavia. Many thousand are killed, and the bombing creates hundreds of thousands of refugees. Los Angeles Police experience the greatest revealed corruption in the history of their department. Up to 100 police officers, working in what's known as the Ramparts area of L.A. are suspect in in shaking down suspected drug dealers for cash and drugs, beating suspects and prisoners, planting evidence on their "enemies" and shooting and killing a number of drug suspects. Close to 70 cases are thrown out of court due to police malfeasance. Police corruption because of the War On Some Drugs is rampant across the nation.

 

2000 — The annual budget for the War On Some Drugs request is the highest ever: $17.7 Billion dollars ... some claim $19 Billion. It's not known as of this writing how much will actually be spent. As of this writing, Congress is debating spending up to nine billion additional dollars to arm the nation of Columbia in the War On Some Drugs. Many fear a repeat of the Vietnam fiasco. As of February 15, two million people are behind bars in America. With approximately 10% of the world's population, we now incarcerate 25% of the world's prisoners. Of the two million, approximately 61% are jailed on drug charges. Of that group, approximately 82% are in on Marijuana charges. Of that subset, 65% are for mere possession cases. Reports begin to surface on the overuse of drugs like Prozac and Ritalin on preschool children. Amnesty International reports a continuation of abuses in the former Yugoslavia. The Kosovar Liberation Army, which the U.S. State Department claims is disbanded, still rules the streets of Kosovo. 28 thousand NATO troops remain as "Peacekeepers." The Miami Herald releases a document signed by an imprisoned Chilean Military Officer that directly implicates Chilean former President Augusto Pinochet. Pinochet was put into power in the 70's after U.S. President Richard Nixon's CIA provided assistance to overthrow popularly-elected Salvador Allende. According to the Herald, the document reveals Pinochet's involvement in a 1976 operation that assasinated Chilean exile leader Orlando Letelier. The bombing occured in Washington, D.C. and is still considered the most serious act of international terrorism to date on U.S. soil. The Herald quotes Espinoza saying that "... by order of the President, we must begin an investigation of Orlando Letelier, who is threatening the stability of the Chilean Government." Espinoza was never extradited to the U.S. to face bombing charges, but he and one other were convicted of the bombing in Chile in 1995.

 


© 2000 H. Neal Smith

Permission is granted to copy in whole or part as long as proper source credit is prominently displayed


This Chronology and the accompanying Foreword and Bibliography were obtained from
http://www.d2kla.org/pipermail/d2kdiscuss/2000-June/000094.html [link expired]

 

 

JURY NULLIFICATION
by Julian Heicklen


Juries originally were introduced into England to protect the individual from the tyranny of government. The first case in which juries nullified a law was that of William Penn and William Mead in England in 1670 The jurors refused to convict the two Quaker activists charged with unlawful assembly. The judge refused to accept a verdict other than guilty, and ordered the jurors to resume their deliberations without food or drink. When the jurors persisted in their refusal to convict, the court fined them and committed them to prison until the fines were paid. On appeal, the Court of Common Pleas ordered the jurors released, holding that they could not be punished for their verdict.


Jury nullification was introduced into America in 1735 in the trial of John Peter Zenger, Printer of The New York Weekly Journal. Zenger repeatedly attacked Governor William Cosby of New York in his journal. This was a violation of the seditious libel law, which prohibited criticism of the King or his appointed officers. The attacks became sufficient to bring Zenger to trial. He clearly was guilty of breaking the law, which held that true statements could be libellous. However Zenger's lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, addressed himself to the jury, arguing that the court's law was outmoded. Hamilton contended that falsehood was the principal thing that makes a libel. It took the jury only a few minutes to nullify the law and declare Zenger not guilty. Ever since, the truth has been a defence in libel cases.


Several state constitutions, including the Georgia Constitution of 1777 and the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1790 specifically provided that "the jury shall be judges of law, as well as fact." In Pennsylvania, Supreme Court Justice James Wilson noted, in his Philadelphia law lectures of 1790, that when "a difference in sentiment takes place between the judges and jury, with regard to a point of law,...The jury must do their duty, and their whole duty; They must decide the law as well as the fact." In 1879, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court noted that "the power of the jury to be judge of the law in criminal cases is one of the most valuable securities guaranteed by the Bill of Rights."

 


John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court stated in 1789: "The jury has the right to judge both the law as well as the fact in controversy." Samuel Chase, U. S. Supreme Court Justice and signer of the Declaration of Independence, said in 1796: "The jury has the right to determine both the law and the facts. " U. S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes said in 1902: "The jury has the power to bring a verdict in the teeth of both law and fact." Harlan F. Stone, the 12th Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, stated in 1941: "The law itself is on trial quite as much as the cause which is to be decided."


 

In a 1952 decision (Morissette v United States), the U. S. Supreme Court recognized the powers of juries to engage in nullification. The court stated:


"Had the jury convicted on proper instructions it would be the end of the matter. But juries are not bound by what seems inescapable logic to judges....They might have refused to brand Morissette as a thief. Had they done so, that too would have been the end of the matter."


In a 1972 decision (U. S. v Dougherty, 473 F 2nd 1113, 1139), the Court said: "The pages of history shine on instances of the jury's exercise of its prerogative to disregard instructions of the judge."


Likewise, the U. S. Supreme Court in Duncan v Louisiana implicitly endorsed the policies behind nullification when it stated: "If the defendant preferred the common-sense judgment of the jury to the more tutored but less sympathetic reaction of the single judge, he was to have it."


In recent times, the courts have tried to erode the nullification powers of juries. Particular impetus for this was given by the fact that all-white juries in the southern states refused to convict whites of crimes against blacks. As a result there is a practice of judges to incorrectly instruct the jury that the judge determines the law, and that the jury is limited to determining the facts. Such an instruction defeats the purpose of the jury, which is to protect the defendant from the tyranny of the state. Judges or expert witnesses can determine the facts better than juries can.

The purpose of the jury is to protect the defendant from the tyranny of the law.


The problem with the all-white juries that refused to convict whites that committed crimes against blacks was not in jury nullification, but in jury selection. The jury was not representative of the community and would not provide a fair and impartial trial.

 

In recent years, jury nullification has played a role in the trials of Mayor Marion Barry of Washington, DC for drug use, Oliver North for his role in the Iran-Contra Affair, and Bernhard Goetz for his assault in a New York City subway.


In Les Miserables, Victor Hugo highlighted the difference between justice and law. The jury's responsibility is to deliver justice, not to uphold the law. Judges in Maryland and Indiana are required by law to inform the jury of its right to nullification. Article 23 of the Maryland Bill of Rights states:


"In the trial of all criminal cases, the Jury shall be the judge of Law, as well as of fact, except that the Court may pass upon the sufficiency of the evidence to sustain a conviction."


Nullification applies just as much in other states, including Pennsylvania. Article I of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania states in Section 6: "Trial by jury shall be as heretofore (emphasis mine), and the right thereof remain inviolate." Section 25 states: "To guard against transgressions of the high powers which we have delegated, we declare that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government and shall forever remain inviolate." Taken together, these two sections mean that juries shall have the powers that they had "Heretofore." i. e. when the Constitution was adopted.


Judges usually do not inform the jury of this right. Even worse, some judges instruct the jury that it does not have the right to interpret or nullify the law, but only to determine the facts. Near the end of alcohol prohibition, juries refused to convict for alcohol violations.


Has the time arrived for juries to do the same for marijuana violations?