General Dr Hans Friedrich Karl Franz Kammler (August 26, 1901 – April 1945?) was an engineer and high-ranking officer of the SS. He oversaw SS construction projects, and towards the end of World War II was put in charge of the V-2 missile programme.
Kammler was born in Stettin, Germany. In 1919, after volunteering for army service, he served in the Rossbach Freikorps . From 1919 to 1923 he studied civil engineering in Munich and Danzig. He joined the NSDAP in 1932 and held a variety of administrative positions when the Nazi government came to power, initially in the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM - Aviation Ministry). In 1940 he joined the SS, where from 1942 he worked at designing facilities for the extermination camps, including gas chambers and crematoria. Kammler eventually became Oswald Pohl's Deputy in the WVHA (Reich Administrative and Economic Main Office), which oversaw Amtsgruppe D (Amt D), the Administration of the concentration camp system, and was also Chief of Amt C, which designed and constructed all of the concentration and extermination camps. Following the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943, Heinrich Himmler assigned him to overseeing the demolition of the ghetto in retaliation.
Kammler was also charged with constructing facilities for various secret weapons projects, including manufacturing plants and test stands for the Messerschmitt Me 262 and V-2. Following the Allied bombing raids on Peenemünde in "Operation Hydra" on August 17, 1943, Kammler was assigned to moving these production facilities underground, which resulted in the Mittelwerk facility and its attendant concentration camp complex, Mittelbau-Dora, which housed slave labour for constructing the factory and working on the production lines. He was also assigned to the construction of facilities at Jonastal and Riesengebirge for nuclear weapons research and at Ebensee to develop a V-2 derived ICBM.
In 1944, Himmler convinced Hitler to put the V-2 project directly under SS control, and on August 6 replaced Walter Dornberger with Kammler as its director. From January 1945, he was placed as head of all missile projects and just a month later was given charge of all German aerospace programs as these came under SS authority as well.
In April 1945, Kammler disappeared. Some reports suggest that he was assassinated by a member of his staff, acting on orders from Himmler not to allow personnel with detailed knowledge of the rocket programme to fall into Allied hands. Others indicate that he may have been killed in action or committed suicide somewhere around Prague. The fact that his exact fate is unknown and that his body was never recovered led to some speculation that he continued his work in the United States after the war, where it is alleged he worked on anti-gravity and other advanced devices.
Agostan's book details all FOUR of the supposed death scenarios of Hans Kammler. These may well have been simply misdirection.
A recent (2001) book by Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point investigates the possibility that Kammler was brought to the United States along with many other German scientists as part of the program known as "Operation Paperclip" (Christopher Simpson, Blowback).
There are no known facts that support this theory. There have been no "Kammler sightings" since the end of the war, contrary to the cases of other Nazi war criminals such as Bormann and Mengele. In addition, Kammler was not a physicist or rocket engineer. He was primarily an administrator and as such would have few skills of value to the Americans.
There is a trail of evidence that indicates in the closing days of the Reich that Kammler used a long-range multi-engined aircraft to ship a large body of research material and prototypes out of the Reich. The book documents much of this evidence. References to Kammler in the official literature relating to the Nuremberg trials have been deleted. In fact, despite the knowledge that Kammler was, in many ways, number three in the Nazi hierarchy in 1945, his name only comes up once, in an indirect reference by Dornberger, during the war crimes trials, including the trial of his subordinates in December 1957 in Arnsberg, Westphalia.
From Tom Agoston, "Blunder! How the U.S. Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to Russia"
SS Obergruppenführer Dr. Ing. (Doctor of Engineering) Hans Kammler, now little known to popular history, architect of the infamous Auschwitz death camps, responsible for the demolition of the Warsaw ghetto, and by the end of the war, the Third Reich's plenipotentiary for all secret weapons research, responsible directly to Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler and to Adolf Hitler himself…….
Kammler boasted almost the perfect "corporate resume" and a documentable record of "whole person management" as a "team player":
A modern day management consultant who was talent hunting for a "total professional with total involvement" would certainly have been fascinated by the bizarre curriculum vitae Kammler could have submitted. He could demonstrate a "track record" in "very senior appointments," with skill in putting across "aggressive growth plans."...
In the Third Reich, within a span of a few years, the number of positions he had held in turn was phenomenal.
Among these "senior appointments" Kammler once commanded were:
(1) Operational control of the V-l and V-2 terror bombardments of London, Liege, Brussels, Antwerp and Paris;
(2) Operational control of all missile production and research, including the V-2 and the intercontinental ballistic missile. the A9/10;
(3) Design and construction oversight of the world's "first bombproof underground aircraft and missile factory sites," including sites for the production of jet engines and the Messerschmitt 262;
(4) command of the SS Building and Words Division, the department which handled all large construction projects for the Reich, including death camps, "Buna factories," and supply roads for invading German legions in Russia;
(5) Design and construction of the world's first underground testing and proving range for missiles;
(6) Command, control and coordination of all of the Third Reich's secret weapons research by the war's end.
This warped and twisted administrative genius first came to the attention of Himmler and Hitler "with a brilliant hand-colored design for the Auschwitz concentration camp, which he subsequently built. Later he was called in to advice on the modalities for boosting the daily output of its gas chambers from 10,000 to 60,000."
All this is to say that not only was Kammler a butcher, but that by the war's end, Hitler had "concentrated more power in Kammler's hands than he had ever entrusted to a single person," bar none. If one were to compare Kammler's position to a similar hypothetical position in the former Soviet Union, such a position would mean that the general who (commanded) the SS-20 rockets in Europe and Asia (the Commander in Chief of Strategic Rocket Forces) would also head research, development, and production of missiles. In addition, he would be in charge of producing all modern aircraft for the Red Air Force and have overall command of the mammoth civil engineering projects or the production centers in Siberia's sub-zero climate. Last, but very much not least, he would lead the national grid of gulags. To match Kammler's position in the SS, the Soviet general holding all these variegated commands would also be third in the KGB pecking order.
Indeed, one would have to add to Agoston's list, for such a Soviet general would also have had to be in charge of the coordination of all the most post-nuclear and super secret advanced scientific research and black projects in the entire Soviet Union. It is thus in the person of SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler that all the lines meet: the Buna factory and slave labor of the camps, exploited for grizzly medical experimentation and labor in the secret underground laboratories and production facilities, the atom bomb project, and as will be seen in the subsequent parts of this book, even more horrendous and monstrous aircraft and weapons development. If there was a gold mine of information, then it was available in the blueprints and files that were locked in Kammler's vaults, or even more securely in his brain. It is this fact and Kammler's extraordinary dossier that make his post-war fate even more problematical.
The failed attempt to kill Hitler on July 20, 1944 caused a violent purge of the German Army officers, including the head of Army armaments Friedrich Fromm, who had the misfortune of being the commanding officer of Lt. Col. Klaus Von Stauffenberg, the man who left the briefcase bomb in the conference room. Himmler assumed the imprisoned Fromm's duties, and the leadership of the Rocket program soon passed from the best of Germany's Prussian military tradition, represented by Walter Dornberger, to its worst. Himmler soon appointed a favorite 'rising star' in the organization, SS Major Hans Kammler, to run the rocket program. Things really got ugly under his influence.
Kammler was an icily calculating man whose ambition was matched only by his cruelty. His grim career included the demolition of the ruins left by the bloody suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising and the overall architectural layout of the Auschwitz death camp, including the fabrication of the gas chambers and crematoria. His new project was the 'Mittelwerk' V-2 factory tunneled within the Harz Mountains. Kammler would gather a work force by the expedient method of mass arrests, boasting openly about the 'protective custody' his workers toiled under. Early in one morning he awakened officers by firing a machine gun, yelling that if he couldn't sleep no one else would! In the deteriorating conditions of the later months of the war he assembled a sizable slave empire, and desperate projects were undertaken with no regard to the human cost. A few of the Peenemünde group who were assigned to work with him were later to regret that association, most notably Arthur Rudolph, a brilliant engineer who, after his work on Apollo's leviathan Saturn V rocket a generation later, would be hounded by reports of his working at the 'Mittelwerk' plant.
While searching for specialists in various critical fields among those caught up in the SS roundups, von Braun once visited the Buchenwald concentration camp and transferred prisoners from there to Mittelwerk. As bad as the use of slave labor is, at least such prisoners were moved to a place where the idea was to manufacture machines faster than manufacturing corpses. Thousands nevertheless died at Mittlewerk under hellish conditions. Kammler and his underlings worked masses of people to death in dank noisy tunnels. Shafts being tunneled by prisoners using hand tools often collapsed, burying in one case hundreds. Explosions killed more, with subsequent manufacturing improvements geared towards efficiency rather than safety. Under Kammler's direction over 1300 rockets would strike England, 518 on London.
On February 28, 1945 Kammler placed a pilot inside a 'Natter', which was a small piloted missile. This man, Luftwaffe Lieutenant Lothar Siebert, became the first person to be launched vertically in a rocket. The honor was a brief one. After climbing 330 feet, the cockpit bubble tore loose, abruptly decapitating the pilot. At 1600 feet the Natter faltered and dived, ending this inglorious debut for manned vertical rocket flight.
In the end, Kammler plunged to the depths of depravity, shooting groups of prisoners himself just for the hell of it. Once over 200 inmates fell victim to one of his blood orgies. Finally he retreated to his special train, the 'Vengeance Express' and issued a flurry of orders fewer people each day could respond to. Probably realizing his diminishing career potential, he finally ordered an aide to shoot him before the approaching Russians could capture him. Another story has him meeting his end in Czechoslovakia in an April gunfight with partisans.
The Four Deaths of SS Obergruppenführer Dr. Ing. Hans Kammler
General Kammler, in addition to his "accomplishments" in streamlining death camp efficiency, his methodical and efficient leveling of the ruined Warsaw Ghetto and meticulous accounting of every last brick and stone removed, his coordination of the most arcane, and perhaps the biggest, secret weapons black projects program in human history, has also another odd distinction to his credit. He of all the high-ranking Nazis indicted and tried at Nuremberg either posthumously or in absentia, was never formally indicted, much less brought to trial. He is altogether missing from the docket, and altogether just simply missing. Kammler has yet another distinction. He appears to have been not only a very accomplished messenger of death for others, but also appears to have achieved the astonishing feat of having died himself no less than four times, each under different circumstances. Agoston commented at length on the odd assortment of "facts" surrounding Kammler's fate: brainchild of none other than Martin Bormann. The purpose of this special command was to evacuate... something. Cook reports that one of these enormous Ju 390s simply went missing at the end of the war.
Analysis of the voluminous documentation as has accrued, shows crude discrepancies, the inconsistencies of which grow with almost every addition to the mosaic of information that enters the picture Basically three major facts stand out:
1. In almost four decades, official records show no positive confirmation of Kammler's death. No court of law, no media editor would accept the uncorroborated statement of "unknown comrades," still so referred to in official records as conclusive evidence of death especially if the death was alleged to have taken place in the chaos of collapsing Germany.
2. The record shows no subsequent sworn corroborative statement. Such a statement would automatically have been entered in the Red Cross and other dossiers on Kammler.
3. None of the persons reporting any of the four versions of the general's death had conformed with the prescribed duty of all servicemen to detach one-half of a dead man's soldier's paybook or officer's identity document, to the nearest unit, relevant records office, Red Cross, or holding power, if the surviving serviceman had become a prisoner of war, to help notification of next of kin. Germans are traditionally meticulous and, to say the least, most sentimental in such matters.
Thus, in spite of "the proliferation of unsubstantiated evidence that permeates all four versions of Kammler's death, the shell of the case contains sufficient facts to suggest a more than coincidental pattern of seemingly targeted and organized disinformation." The origin of this disinformation, according to Agoston, was probably within the SS itself, a program necessitated by Kammler's disappearance and likely treason to one of the victorious Allied powers.
The "first death of General Hans Kammler" is recounted by Albert Speer himself, in his last book. In this most simple version, Kammler ordered his adjutant to shoot him. The "suicide" allegedly took place in Prague as Kammler realized the war was lost and, according to Speer, "acted in elitist SS loyalty." As Agoston quips, "even the most ardent worshipper of Teutonic creed could not possibly suggest that elitist SS loyalty can be demonstrated three times, in three locations, and all on the same day."
The second version of the story, related to Agoston by Kammler's "civilian" aide Dr. Wilhelm Voss, was that the general took cyanide somewhere "on the road between Pilsen and Prague on May 9."
The third version of Kammler's death was doled out by V-2 rocket expert, General Walter Dornberger, subsequently employed by the American firm of Bell Aerospace. According to Dornberger, Kammler's mental and emotional state had quickly deteriorated in the final days of the war, and the general overheard Kammler ordering his aide to shoot him if things became "hopeless." But this does not square with Dornberger's close associate, Dr. Wernher Von Braun's own recollection of a conversation he overheard between Kammler and his aide Starck fully two weeks later.
According to von Braun, Kammler and Starck discussed the possibility of "going underground" before the Americans arrived, disguising themselves as monks in a nearby abbey.This report, if true, is perhaps the most interesting, since it indicates that Kammler had no intentions of surrendering himself to any of the Allied powers, but rather, intended to survive, perhaps independently continuing his oversight of secret weapons development.
Another version of Kammler's death has him giving a speech to his assembled aides in Prague in early May 1945, dismissing them from their duties and advising them to return home, and then walking into a woods where he then shot himself.
And lastly, there is a version of Kammler's death that has him dying a typical SS hero's death, fighting and going down in a blaze of "glory" in the face of rebelling and revolting Czechs.
What emerges from all this is that no one, no where can advance anything like a consistent account of the date, location, time, or even method of Kammler's death. Now it is suicide by poison, then suicide by gunshot, suicide by ordering an aide to shoot him, a fighting death, or disappearance into a Roman Catholic monastery. Now he is in Prague, now he isn't; now he's with people, now he isn't; now he's suffering mental and emotional collapse, now he isn't.
In all likelihood, therefore, Kammler did not die at all; he disappeared. The important question is, where?
Generalleutnant Dornberger stated to Generalleutnant Heim that [SS Gruppenführer Hans] Kammler had been ordered by the Führer not to let Braun, Dornberger and the 450 scientists and technicians at Peenemünde fall into Anglo-American hands but to liquidate them all beforehand. It was a huge risk to Kammler's own personal safety to evacuate all the Peenemünde staff in April 1945 to Oberammergau, Bavaria, contrary to Hitler's orders. Why else would Kammler do so unless it was a bargaining chip for negotiations with the OSS [Operation Sunrise]
Members of Kammler's staff claimed he was still alive at Jacin in Czechoslovakia late in April 1945.
Enter into the picture a Junkers Ju-290 A-5 aircraft with constructor's number 110178. This aircraft was withdrawn from Luftwaffe service and rebuilt at Tempelhof into a civil aircraft in September 1944. It was given Deutsche Lufthansa markings and civil serial as D-AITR "Bayern". Conversion was completed October 1944.
Flughauptman Paul Sluzalek flew this aircraft from Prag to exile in Barcelona on 26 April 1945. It had a number of SS personnel aboard whom the Spanish have always refused to identify. Was Kammler a passenger with the blessings of the OSS?
Both SS Lt Gen Hans Kammler and Adolf Eichmann were close to Prag about this same time and both disappeared. Although Eichmann is supposed to have escaped overland to Genoa, there is a very clear possibility that Kammler could have flown out of Prague and just maybe Eichman was with him on that Ju-290.
Whilst everybody has speculated on the fate of Martin Bormann, the real scandal must be OSS dealings with Kammler.
Agoston had established what no other researcher has managed to before or since. The unique information Agoston had came directly from SS colonel Wilhelm Voss who had become "Kammler's alter ego in the administration of the special projects group." As Kammler was the guy in charge of all the secret weapons operations, Voss was certainly in position to know deep secrets known only to the Nazi elite in the highly compartmentalized military system.
Agoston, who worked as an air photo interpreter and foreign correspondent during wartime, "ran into Voss" when he was in Germany to cover the Nuremberg war crimes trials. Voss then took shelter in Agoston's house, where he would tell the reporter everything. From those interviews conducted in 1949, Agoston learned of the deep black projects, the secrecy of which was beyond any other secret military project. This was the "most advanced high-technology research and development center within the Third Reich":
While Kammler [in charge of Nazi secret weapons projects] carried out his job to the letter, churning out the rockets and jet aircraft that Hitler hoped would turn the tide against the Allies in the closing weeks of the war, he also set up, unbeknownst to anyone connected with those projects, a top secret research center tasked with the development of follow-on technology, a place where work on "second-generation" secret weapons was already well advanced. What Kammler had established was a "special projects office," a forerunner of the entity that had been run by the bright young colonels of the USAF's stealth program in the 1970s and 1980s; a place of vision, where imagination could run free, unfettered by the restraints of accountability. Exactly the kind of place, in fact, you'd expect to find antigravity technology, if such an impossible thing existed.
Voss described the activities of the scientists [in this secret operation] as beyond any technology that had appeared by the end of the war - working on weapon systems that made the V-1 and the V-2 look pedestrian.
During the final phase of the war, Kammler was reportedly scheming to make a deal with the Americans, using his advanced weapons and specialists as leverage. By April 18, 1945, Kammler had disappeared without trace. Did Kammler negotiate successfully with the U.S. to realize his escape from justice? The fact that the U.S. official documents had virtually nothing on this central figure in the technological world of the Reich certainly hinted conversely that Kammler was very important to the U.S. and that the latter had something to hide about him.
Adding to this suspicion was what Voss said about his interview with the U.S. Counter-Intelligence Corps. When Voss told the agents about Kammler's secret weapons program, he saw that the Americans were not surprised by it and therefore had to conclude that they somehow already had this information. Voss also noted that the agents were simply not interested in finding Kammler. Additionally, it was found that "there were dozens of high-ranking former SS or Party members that had never been called to account. They had simply disappeared. Many of them shared the distinction of having had access to highly advanced technology."
Kammler was a ruthless and powerful SS officer who had committed numerous war crimes. Even Operation Paperclip would have had great trouble importing him into the United States. It probably could have been done under extreme secrecy, but the operation would have been too risky and extensive to appear manageable to U.S. agents - unless, Kammler had something so spectacular that the Americans just had to have, perhaps some exotic technology developed in one of his top-secret projects.
|Extract from: |
"The Hunt For Zero Point: One Man's Journey To Discover The Biggest Secret Since The Invention Of The Atom Bomb" by Nick Cook
The key man was a German engineer and administrator, Hans Kammler, who began as a civil servant with the Reich Air Ministry but whose ambition led him to the SS, where he became head of the Building and Works divisions that masterminded the concentration camps. Albert Speer, Hitler's Minister for Armaments, noted that Kammler was 'blond, blue-eyed, long-headed, always neatly dressed and well bred ... capable of unexpected decisions at any minute.'
It was the SS, not the Luftwaffe, that controlled Hitler's secret weapons programme and Kammler, a qualified engineer, soon became deeply involved.
He was clever and cruel 20,000 slave workers died creating the vast galleried complex hacked out under the Harz Mountains in Germany, where Kammler oversaw production of V1 rockets. One day in March 1945, the guards hanged 52 people in Gallery 41, tying a dozen at a time to a beam, which was then pulled up by a crane. Those next in line were forced to watch. These were Kammler's hallmarks.
Kammler rose to the rank of SS General, in charge not only of all aircraft and missile programmes but also his own high powered research and development thinktank. He set up his secret operation in the vast Skoda industrial complex in Czechoslovakia, a country that the SS regarded as its own private domain.
Scientists there were working on weapons systems so futuristic that they made Germany's V1 and V2 rocket bombs look pedestrian. Among these were nuclear power plants for rockets and aircraft, highly sophisticated guided weapons and antiaircraft lasers.
But there was more. A Polish source told me the extraordinary story of 'The Bell'. Experiments had been taking place in a mine close to the Czech border. They involved feeding large doses of electricity into an underground chamber where a bell-shaped device emitted a pale blue light. Five scientists exposed to the device had died of side-effects. Word had it that they were investigating some kind of anti-gravitational effect. The Bell, which was about the height of a man and glowed during testing, was made of hard, heavy metal, filled with a violet mercury-like substance. This metallic liquid was stored in a flask, encased in lead three centimeters thick.
Experiments always took place under a thick ceramic cover and involved the rapid spinning of two cylinders in opposite directions. The chamber in which the experiments took place was deep below ground. Only The Bell itself was preserved after a series of tests, each lasting about one minute. Even the room was destroyed and rebuilt.
Various plants, and animals such as frogs, mice and rats, were exposed to The Bell's sphere of influence. Rapid decay set in and people who helped conduct the experiments suffered from sleep problems, memory loss and muscle spasms. One of the terms used was 'vortex compression'. Another was 'magnetic fields separation'. Both were associated with antigravity.
These secrets were undoubtedly Kammler's ticket to safety once war had ended. By mid April of 1945 Kammler had dropped off the map. He was a leading Nazi, implicated in the Final Solution yet protracted searches in the US National Archives yielded not a single mention.
How could this monster, the most powerful individual outside Hitler's inner circle, be so easily forgotten?
It was only as I gazed at the single wartime picture [see other above] that exists of Kammler in his General's uniform, striding for the camera, his cap with death's head badge enough to one side to betray more than a hint of vanity - that I began to understand. Kammler was fair. Take away the uniform, and he could have been any 40 year old European male. In the chaos of the collapsing Reich, Kammler could have gone anywhere, assumed any persona, and no one would have noticed.
Kammler, who had moved his HQ to Munich, told Albert Speer he would offer the Americans 'jet planes and rockets'. He also let slip he had 'other developments' up his sleeve.
He probably went east, back to his 'special projects group' in Czechoslovakia, rather than simply wait for the Americans to arrive in Munich. He had a twofold purpose in making his dangerous journey. First, to retrieve the mother lode of documentation and blueprints. And second, to hide it prior to setting up the deal, which would buy his freedom.
Although the Skoda Works were in, the Soviet zone of occupation, US forces had the run of the place for six days before the Red Army turned up.
Plenty of time to remove something you want if you know it is there. Or ignore it, if you have it already. The Americans appeared indifferent to any pointers towards Kammler. Had he already done a deal with the Americans? The answer must be yes.
The Bell was removed by a special SS evacuation team just before the Russians arrived. More than 60 Scientists working on the experiment were then ruthlessly killed to preserve the secrets of the mine. The Bell was shipped out but to where?
One possibility was using one of the northern Adriatic ports that remained in German hands. A U-boat commander could conceivably have run the gauntlet of the Allies to evacuate cargo and personnel by sea. Another possibility was a heavy transport plane used by a special German air force wing and flown under an enemy or neutral flag. Either way, Kammler had the means to move thousands of tons of documentation, equipment and personnel pretty much where he wanted.
June 1945: American forces enter the huge underground complexes at Nordhausen in the Alps. They capture V-1, V-2 and prototype V-4 rockets. Many experimental aircraft are discovered, including disc, and triangular craft. All featured either piston or jet powered forms of propulsion. Allegations have been made about the discovery of blueprints and documents describing an anti-gravity propulsion unit as well as plans for the peacetime exploration of space. At the same time, over 200 of the newest model XXI submarines are missing from their pens. The entire German Bank was missing! (Guinness book of world records lists this as the largest unsolved bank heist in history!) Over 2,000 Nazi scientists were missing and almost 200,00 people from the general population were never found. This figure did not include war dead, POW’s and MIA’s already accurately recorded.
At the end of the Second World War, via captured technology from Germany that has never seen the light of day, America acquired knowledge of the most dangerous kind.
Whatever the secrets, of The Bell and other technology, the German secret weapons programme had yielded the ability to design a radically different form of aircraft. A craft that was 'circular or elliptical', made no sound and could turn on a sixpence. And one involving a process, which could also be harnessed to create a weapon more destructive than the hydrogen bomb.
With the help of German-derived science, America's technological lead over the rest of the world accelerated after the war. Kammler's secrets from the Skoda Works had moved 4,000 miles to the west and Kammler had come with it.
The extensive US recruitment programme would have bent over backwards to accommodate Kammler, keeper of the Third Reich's most exotic military secrets.
There is evidence that the Americans did produce such technology. A memo in the archives of the Imperial War Museum, written by Lieutenant General Nathan Twining, head of US Army Air Forces' Air Material Command, a brigadier in USAAF intelligence in September 1947, stated that objects 'approximating the shape of a disc, of such appreciable size as to be as large as a manmade aircraft, were neither 'visionary nor fictitious'.
Twining went on to write that it was possible "within the present US knowledge provided extensive detailed development is undertaken to construct a piloted aircraft which has the general description of the object above which would be capable of an approximate range of 7,000 miles..."
His memo was written just three months after the supposed crash of a UFO at Roswell, New Mexico, in July 1947; the period many people tout as the real start of the modern UFO sightings.
Area 51 has come to be associated with UFO's.
There are stories that the flying saucer that
allegedly crashed at Roswell, New Mexico,
had been brought to the Nellis Complex
where it was under study.
Reports of an alien spacecraft being struck by lightning and crashing late at night in early July, 1947, near Roswell, New Mexico, were the beginnings of the most compelling event in all UFO lore.
Originally reported in the Fort Worth Star-Telegram and confirmed by military officials as authentic, the report was later refuted by the military and the crash remains were claimed to be nothing more than a weather balloon.
Renowned aviation artist Tony Weddel has depicted the moments before the crash by capturing the object as an alien spacecraft in the initial stages of its death throes. In freefall, moments after being hit by a lightning upstroke, debris can already be seen in the slipstream. Seconds later it would careen off the desert floor on the way to its final resting place. Shedding debris from a fatal wound, its struggle for survival and the lives of seven aliens purportedly ended 40 miles later when it slammed into the wall of an arroyo. The unusual appearance of the UFO is based on various eyewitness accounts and other sources.
Not all attempts to produce disc technology were successful. It emerged, during the 1959 hearings of the Space Committee of the US Congress, that the US Department of Defense had been working with the Avro Canada company to develop a 'flying saucer'.
The Avrocar, as it was called, was the brainchild of gifted British engineer John Frost, who had moved to Canada after the war. News leaked as early as 1953, when a Canadian newspaper revealed plans for it to take off and land vertically, and fly at 1,500 mph.
It was easy to see why Avro played down reports of the Avrocar. One look at the prototype, underpowered and unstable, was enough to confirm it would never achieve supersonic flight. It became an aviation joke, which drifted into obscurity. Yet, that may have been the intention.
Recently declassified papers show that Avro was working on a range of flying saucers capable of eclipsing existing jet-fighters. And the US air force had bought Avro's disc-shaped designs for craft called Project Silverbug, capable of almost instant high-speed turns in any direction.
Were the Americans using the Canadians to perfect the aerodynamics of a flying saucer? Or had the disastrous Avro programme been hushed up to avoid embarrassment? Either way, it showed that man-made flying saucers existed.
There was no golden age, as 'The G-Engines Are Coming!' had predicted. At least, not in the open. But I discovered evidence of mysterious aircraft which chimed with reduced gravity systems.
Since the Eighties, there has been speculation about the existence of a mythical plane called Aurora that supposedly flew on the edges of space. In 1992, there was a detailed sighting of a massive triangular-shaped aircraft spotted flying in formation with US air force bombers above the North Sea.
Although never officially confirmed, Aurora was also developed by the Lockheed Skunk Works during the 1980s. The space plane was designed to operate either in a manned or unmanned mode. Its Cold War mission was to penetrate the anti-missile defenses surrounding Moscow at Mach 8+ speeds and deliver nuclear bombs onto multiple targets.
Aurora was described as a very large diamond-shaped vehicle and most likely powered by a hybrid jet-rocket engine technology. The craft could attain speeds in excess of 8,000 miles an hour and fly at altitudes of over 50 miles. was armed with over a dozen nuclear warheads. It was developed to be both manned and unmanned was because of its dual missions - peacetime reconnaissance and wartime nuclear strike vehicle.
During times of peace, the Aurora carried manned crews to supervise surveillance. During wartime, the very powerful Aurora accelerated and changed directions at speeds that would crush a human under the high G forces. Aurora's nuclear strike mission was intended to be without a pilot because a human simply would not survive the ride.
However, Aurora had two great drawbacks: its price tag and its mission.
Aurora reportedly was retired from service in the late 1990s due to budget constraints. Each vehicle reportedly cost over $2 billion. The price of Aurora operations could not be justified when the Cold War ended.
In Belgium, in 1989 and again a year later, hundreds of people reported seeing silent triangular shaped craft all over the country. They were tracked by Belgian radar and pulled turns of about 20G40G enough to kill a human pilot. The Belgian air force confirmed their existence in a government report.
I also discovered evidence of the Pentagon's enormous 'black budgets', which finance deeply classified defence programmes.
To those who spend their time scanning reams of dry defense-spending documents, the Black Budget is a well-known bit of excitement. It is the discrepancy that is left when all the known weapons procurements, research programs, and technical developments are added up. This year, according to the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, the U.S. military's black budget will rise to levels not seen since the 1980s, from $16.2 billion last year  to $20.3 billion.
Huge amounts of money have been spent, often in areas of the US where UFO reports are most common. What happened to Kammler's secrets, and was antigravity among them?